Dr. Hasan Yahya Writings
Part Two: Samples of English Writings

Arabs and Muslims and race relations in the United States of America

Hasan Yahya, Ph.D

The history of race and ethnic relations in the American (U.S) society show that perfect understanding among the diverse groups of the American society is far from achieving in spite of the fact that serious attempts have been made to improve race relations. The development of minority group assimilation to the mainstream American society from Americanization through the melting pot and finally to plurality of cultures still persist in the literature of race relations. These developments varied in the volume of racism, discrimination, and stereotyping. Even though, theoretically speaking, it might be thought for a while that America is free of these practices against Native Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Jews, Women, aged people, mentally ill or disabled, gay and lesbians, and of course, Arabs. It might be thought also that for a while that all African Americans (over 30 million) belong to fancy Cosby Show family or Michael Jackson group. But reality is something else.

In this article, contributions of Arabs to world culture are described, as well as perception of Westerners in general, and Americans in particular of Arabs and Muslims as a minority group. Arabs like Jews are Semites, thats to say, their language belongs to the ethnic family of languages. Few number of scholars recognize that between the 8th and 12th centuries, while most of Europe was in the throes of barbarism, the Arabs kept a light the flame of Western civilization. To them belongs the unique distinction of having the culture of the east as well as that of the west. From China, Arabs introduced the papers to the West, They furnished the language of science. In Mathematics, Arabs created and improved system of numerals, and developed the mathematical use of the ZERO. They made important contributions to the science of astronomy, music, alchemi, and geography. In Medicine, they classified the pulmonary circulation of the blood, distinguished between smallpox and measles, established psychological treatment to mentally ill persons, and found the curative uses of many drugs. In Chemistry, they learn to dissolve metals to ART, Literature, Architecture, and Philosophy. They preserved many ancient manuscripts, study them and write about them. As a consequence, Arab scholars were well versed in Aristotle three centuries before the churchmen became acquainted with most of his books and philosophy. Arabs created intricate forms of versification and wrote poems of exquisite beauty. They produced numerous works of literature criticism, wrote voluminous histories, and made innumerable translations.

Above all, Arabs established one of the great religions of the world. Its unifying power is attested by the fact, that although scattered and separated by allegiance to various political states, they are in the very real sense ONE nation of Islam. With all these contributions, Arabs and Islam in the perceptions of westerners including Americans have negative meanings and almost always used with little respect and appreciation. Is there a lack of knowledge about Arabs and Muslims? Or is there a lack of interest in Arabs and Muslims? Or is there an international neglect to a great people and great religion? The British writers, Peter Mansfield in his book, The Arabs tells a story of Americans in ARAMCO schools. Students were asked some questions to test their knowledge about Arabs and Islam like: Who is the Arab? What is Islam? And Who is the Prophet Muhammad? The answer was that the Arabic is a Bedouin wearing a djellabia (a long piece dress), carrying an old pistol (or dagger), a camel jockey, in his way to attack his neighbors. About Islam their answers were as follows: Islam is a luck game like bridge; Islam is mysterious faith created by the KKK in the United States south. Islam is an American Masonic organization, its members wear strange dresses. About the Prophet Muhammad, the answers were no less humor, Muhammad is the author of one thousand and one night, Muhammad is an American Niger, and Muhammad has something related to mountain. Peter Mansfield commented on such answers by saying: It is obvious that these answers were indications of ignorant persons who wanted to cover up their lack of knowledge. Films produced by Hollywood almost always portray Arabs in negative terms. They are either extremely wealthy barbaric and backward, or sex maniacs. These myths can be depicted from Valentinos the Cheik through Goldie Hawns Protocol. In Lawrence of Arabia, Arabs were depicted as backward, divided, cruel, cowardly, decadent people, and back sappers. Many critics think that is the way most Americans still think of them.

On television entertainment, viewers are regularly treated to Patently racist caricatures of Muslims. As one put it: villains in todays TV movies are likely to be Arabs when they are not South American drug lords, inscrutable rich Asians, Nazi like Europeans or corrupt like Wall Street financiers. (Smith 1991) Some writers in the United States began show injustices practiced against Arabs and Muslims, for example, Ostrow, a free-lance writer describes these stereotypes as part of a simple shorthand to let audiences know who was in charge, who was subservient, and who was the villain. In 1991-2, reports from the Middle East rarely treated the Arabs as people with families who worry about their childrens future or their environment. Arab deaths were discounted by the government and repeated by the media as collateral damages. The Arab point of view in many instances, was left out of the story. This may be overstatement, but this is a complaint worthy of reflection. To conclude this article, the writer is optimistic about the future of race relations in the United States, but not sure about Europe, (France, Germany, Spain, England, etc.,) Because the American public as I interacted with it, is open to new experiences, eager for information, and knowledge about other cultures especially Arabs and Muslims. It is this openness which give us the hope to communicate for more understanding among the diverse groups of the American society. American policy- makers as well as the public are more apt to deal with minority groups on the grounds of justice and human rights slogans. I believe that if these slogans were applied equally to the diverse cultures of the American society, including Arabs and Muslims, then education, awareness, interaction, and communication will increase reciprocal positive area of misconceptions. As a consequence, the area of compromising may be enlarged to give more chance for peaceful resolutions of race relations and conflict.

Book Review: Middle Eastern Tales

 

55 Stories 4 Kids - Arabic Version, Author: Hasan Yahya, Ph.D, Createspace-Amazon (2008) $18.99.), 116 p. (Ages 3 12).

When a highly educated person write about a serious subject for kids, we all should benefit from his/her insights. Prof. Yahya tops his books with this one which reflects some of his knowledge about best stories to make children learn and think to build certain ethics. Culturally the book presents various faraway lands stories, in simple Arabic language, to be used by parents and grandparents to narrate before sleeping, or any time of the day. A good gift for familial occasions. Families with kids from 3 to 12 years of age.

The author starts with The crow and the Duck, the Frog and Ox, the hare and the Tortoise tales and ends with and his Dog The Hunter, and The Fox and the Grapes tales.

With this book, Yahya makes an important contribution to the development of a planetary consciousness so needed in these full of stress times searching for kids stories. Our children need literature to make their imagination travels easily and smoothly in the dream lives of the actors of the stories. The stories are fables collected and written in simple Arabic language to be read by parents and grandparents to their love ones. May be the most story telling appealing for kids. Professor Yahya in this book, is very influential in his style of narration.

In his introduction Prof. Yahya described his purpose of writing the stories. He writes: I have decided to do something in my old age, I tried to write the fable tales for my grandchildren to tell them before or after sleep. I collected anecdotes, first from what my grandma was telling me about in my childhood, even though she was illiterate, like my grandpa, who used to tell us stories when he was in the army, at the beginning of the twentieth century. Their tales still wandering in my imaginative side of my brain. Other tales I remember from my school curriculum, in my second to fifth grade. I also included tales from far away lands, like China, Persia, Rome, Africa, and my-now-country, the United States. The literature is almost full of great writers, politicians, and teachers, who give examples when they talk or wrote, or describe, or explain. It is a wise method to use, to make people wonder, and begin to apply some ideas or thoughts to those who cannot-for any reason, mentally, or physically-understand. It is the wisdom, old and new, in these fable tales, and anecdotes, which force me to write this number of fables and tales. I believe, literate, illiterate, or even highly educated anywhere on earth are in serious need to learn in order to live in peace.

I agree with the writer, in his sincere feelings working toward learning to promote peace in this world. In general the book was published twice in a short period. (493 words) www.dryahyatv.com

 

Eid al-Adha: A Great Occasion for Muslims

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

 

This article is written for Muslims and non-Muslims for knowledge and understanding between cultures. After reading this article, you will gain some knowledge about a misunderstood Islamic occasions, sometimes among its followers. Yes, a lot of them think that this Eid is so cruel to sheep and is so uncivilized. Because they did not know the reasons for this Eid,Or they do judge the act from the outside. Its just an invitation to take a deeper look on the occasion.


1. Eid al-Adha is one of the two main occasions for Muslim to celebrate. The occasion is to share those who went for pilgrimage to Makka each year. Almost about three million people gather each year to perform the fifth principle in Muslim Faith. After Shahadatayn, prayer, fasting and giving alms or Zakat. Muslim have to eat meat (Sheep, Cows, and checkens, are legal, but pork like in the Jewish faith is illegal).Eid Al Adha, means the Fest of Sacrifice. Muslims celebrate it in remembrance of the story of prophet Ibrahim. As you know God tests us all the time. And God wanted Ibrahim to prove his strong belief in him by checking if hed do anything for the love of God. So God asked him to kill his own son, which is something impossible normally, and which was so harsh on Ibrahim, but still he chose to fulfill Gods will and sacrifice his son. But the minute he was about to kill his son, God replaced the boy with a sheep to be killed instead of the boy as a reward for his strong belief, proving once again that God tests peoples faith but is never willing to hurt them.


2. Eid Al Adha is an occasion to remember Gods mercy and the devotion and faith of the believers. Its an occasion to share the poor and give them a chance to eat meat that they cant afford. If you can afford buying a sheep, then never forget to donate as much as you can for the poor, this is the spirit of Eid Al Adha, its not about showing off nor stuffing yourself with different meat dishes. And make sure you use appropriate places for the purpose of slaughtering, and streets arent the place for sure. Yet the difference between what God asked us to do and what people are actually doing is what destroyed the balance of nature. God asked us to be good to other creatures, care for them and when we need them, we should do our best not to hurt them. You shouldnt cut off the leaves of a plant for fun, you shouldnt burn it and you should use it in a gentle way. Just like animals, you shouldnt torture them and you shouldnt use them in a bad way. So no negative use, but you can still use them. I will not eat meat. I dont want to have Mad Cow Disease, anyone who says this has the right to be scared, but the problem wont be solved that way. We wouldnt have got Mad Cow Disease nor Birds flue or any other animal disease if we took the right precautions before eating their meat. And God has created us all to live together and improve. Animals eat plants and other animals and sometimes humans. And Humans eat plants and animals and some plants eat other plants and insects and live on the rest of dead bodies. Were all created as a natural circle and practice loyalty to God. To justify this point, many people might not be satisfied with this argument, but its serious, actually a lot of normal people test others loyalty towards them in different ways. Men test womens love, women test mens loyalty, kids test their family's appreciation, friends test each others trust etc. Some ways could be reasonable like for example a father asking his son to stop smoking to show his love for his dad, or a mother asking her little girl to eat all her dish to prove her love for her mom. And some are silly, like a woman asking her husband to sell the dearest thing he has just to prove his love for her. Or a guy asking a girl to forget about the whole world and run away with him to a new place where he has no life and no future at all, just to prove her love for him... But the difference between Gods testing and peoples testing is that God just tests and isnt waiting for things to actually happen, and God rewards without you even doing the thing. God wants nothing in return. But people, we ask, we want things to be done our way, and then were just pleased. No rewards but a thank you that might not even come from the bottom of the heart.

3. Eid al-Adha is an act celebrated to please God and have His forgiveness, no matter what logic behind it. Some people believe as animal friends and call for the rights of animals and all, when they actually arent any different from those who eat animal meat. It is a fact, that we all eat, some eat everything, some eat only vegetables, or fruits or serials. The thing is when you eat vegetables you are eating living creatures as well. And if something doesnt have eyes nor legs, or if it doesnt have a mouth, that doesnt mean its dead! Plants are alive, they have souls, they have families, a grand tree, a baby plant theyre just like all other living creatures.

 

4. One more point I have to explain here, concerning some words describe meat in the super-markets such as Halal meat. It means it was slaughtered following Islamic instructions, which are: taking a healthy animal (sheep, cow, chicken..), then saying: In the name of God the Merciful to it (yes you should talk to it to calm it down and show respect to its soul as well as mercy for its body) and then quickly cut a certain vein in a certain point in the neck. And if you make a quick research youll find out that its the best way for both the animal and the human, why? For the animal because its so quick, and hits the point where pain is felt the least, so it doesnt hurt the animal at all, opposite to using electric shocks and stuff which leaves the animal suffering before its dead. And good for the humans because this cut vein releases excess old blood (following scientific pressure rules) leaving the body with only pure fresh blood that was newly generated and that will be easily took out of the body while cooking. Oh, and last but not least, the released blood should be cleaned away. (1150 words) www.dryahyatv.vom

 

Muslims Around the World

Muslims these days from Westerners point of view, are causing fear and despair among them, especially after 9/11 attack on the United States of America. However, Muslims exist in almost every country around the globe. A total of more than 400 million Muslim live outside the Muslim and Arab countries. In China for example, Muslims consists over 110 millions, in India over 100 million, and in the former Soviet Union live more than 50 million Muslim.

In the Western nations, however, numbers of Muslims are much less. For example, In the United States the estimated number is between 3 and 10 millions. In France, over 4 millions, in Germany the number exceeds three millions, and the United Kingdom over three millions. (Yahya 1991)

Muslim organizations in these countries were supported largely by Saudi Arabia, the nationalist organizations were supported by Jamal abdul Naser of Egypt, and Muammar al-Qaddafi of Libya in the early years, nonetheless, Organizations were limited to follow their supporters and sponsors. In other words, they become irrational organizations with no room for liberal to take part in these organizations. The traditional way of dealing with these organizations, in my opinion, is totally direct Muslims toward sharp divisions as conservatists-authoritarianists-fundamentalists, and liberalists-democratic-secularists. I think, the sharp division was not only among Muslim organizations, but between Muslims and non-Muslims as well. And that is the problem. If liberals were called (non-believers, and Kafirs) according to first division (especially the fundamentalists), what would be the non-Muslims. It is worse than kafir, in their opinion.

Does this situation changed through the years, the 9/11 tells us, that the fundamentalist were more active than secularists. This situation can be perceived in the Arab and Muslim nations. Mosques and local everyday practices , are dividing people in the same community. If the lack of rational and liberal organizational practices continue to disappear fro the political and social systems, instability, disorder, and conflict are expected to rise. The temporary political regimes wanted from the beginning that traditionalism to continue, for a simple reason, if people have democracy, justice and freedom of political participation, they will force change in the political arena, and expel many rulers from their thrones.

Unfortunately, even though the appeal for social and political change is a global one, the liberalist Western countries promote the opposite. They stand with these temporary leaders for their common interest. But how long this will persist? Change is coming, slowly, perhaps, but it is coming. Theories of civilization and nation decline and history are the best to tell.

Islam, and Muslims in North America

In large measure, we are what our loyalties are: Loyalties to a family, to a tribe, a caste, a class, a neighborhood, a religion, a nation, an ideology, or more realistically, a combination of many of these. (Cantril, 1976, p. 15)

 

In this study, the writer examined the role of religion in formulating peoples opinions and investigated satisfaction among members of a particular religious institution. The review of related literature and research represents an attempt to draw together certain key ideas concerning factors that influence the satisfaction of Muslim organization members. Included in the first section are a discussion of Islamic beliefs and practices and a historical background of Muslims in North America . Related organizational theories are discussed in the second section, The third section covers research on life satisfaction and contextual variables. An integration of the three preceding sections concludes the chapter.

 

Islam and Muslims, Historical Background

 

The Muslim World today can be linked to an eagle. Its body is the Arabian peninsula (from South Yemen in the South to Turkey in the North), and its two wings represent the east Asian (from Pakistan to Indonesia) and the African Islamic nations - mostly Arabs- (from Egypt to Sierra Leone).

Whether or not this description is accurate, it is useful in dividing the Muslim nations into three Units in terms of their geographic characteristics. Later in this book, we will cover these characteristic in detail.

 

In terms of religion, in the last part of the sixth century, an illiterate Beduin Arab renewed what was forgotten of the religion of Abraham, Ismael, Isaac, Jacob, and Jesus and created through the revelations contained in the Qurn the social rules and laws of equality, brotherhood, and justice. Muhammad (pbuh), son of Abdullah and Aminah, was the successful pioneer for social change. His qualifications were simply revelations from Allah (swt). The revealed message was called the Quran, and the new religion was named Islam, the religion of God.

Muslims, therefore, took their name from their religion and not from Muhammad, the messenger of God. Some orientalists have erroneously called Muslims Muhammadans and called Islam Muhammadanism (Bib, 1953; Goldziher, 1988,; Schacht, 1950).

 

Explaining this point further, Crag (1975) stated:

The great Arab-born monotheism of Asia and Africa is unique among faiths in being denoted by a term that is also common name. Hinduism takes its name from a land and a river, Buddhism from the meaning of a founder figure, Judaism from people, Christianity from the concept and achievement of the Messiah. Islam which is never properly called Muhammadanism differs from all of these. (p. 5)

 

 

To understand the unique role that Islam plays in the Muslims life, it is necessary to explain some important terms and principles of the Islamic Faith. The basic Islamic beliefs and practices are discussed briefly in the following section.

 

Islamic Terms, Islamic Beliefs, and Practice

1. Islamic Terms:

 

Allah Akbar: God is the greatest above all.

 

Quran: The collection of the laws revealed by God (SWT) to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) through the angel Gabriel Al-Rouh Al-Amin(the Honest Spirit, PBUH). It explain everything (Q 12:111), and everything is clear in it (Q 44:3); it overlooks nothing (Q 6:38).

 

Sunnah: The way of the Prophet (PBUH), his sayings, his practices, and his approved acts.

 

Halal: Legal activities as fixed in the Quran and the Sunnah, to be practiced by Muslims in their everyday lives.

 

Haram: Illegal activities as fixed in the Quran and the Sunnah, to be avoided by Muslims in their everyday lives.

 

Salah: Muslim prayer performed five times a day, individually or collectively.

 

Friday prayer: A weekly noon prayer, its condition to be performed collectively with traditional steps; otherwise it is performed as Thuhur (noon) prayer.

 

Hajj: Pilgrimage, performed once in a lifetime of every physiologically, psychologically, and financially able Muslim. The Hajj is performed by visiting the Holy Kaabah in Makkah, with special arrangements of dress and acts.

 

Seyam: Fasting (29 or 30 days) in the month of Ramadhan, when Muslims avoid food and drink from before dawn to sunset.

 

Rebaa: Charging interest without sharing profits and losses; it is prohibited by Islamic law.

 

Bidah: Innovation in the religious sense is bidah (heresy) and something generally bad. It is the opposite of the sunnah, or path, which is the way of the Prophet (PBUH) or his community of Muslims.

 

SWT: Acronym for Allah usually used after the name of Allah (SWT). Literally Subhanahu Wa Taala, meaning Praise the Lord.

 

PBUH: Acronym usually used after the mention of any of the Prophets (uhammad, Moses, Jesus, etc.,[PBUH]. PBUH reads in Arabic, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, which means Peace Be Upon Him.RAA:

 

Eman: The belief in GOD, his messengers, the Day of Judgement, and al-Qadar, (the fate), whither it was good or bad.

 

Taqwa: the highest stage of Eman

Surah: One condenced group of Ayat in one surah. The total of Suras in

Quran is 114 .

 

Ayat: Verses of the holy Quran spread in the Suras. Some are short as one letter, others extended to many lines.

 

RAA: An acronym that follows the mention of the Prophets companions and family; it literally reads Radhia Allah Anhum, meaning Allah is pleased with them.

 

2. Islamic Beliefs and Practices,

 

Some fundamentals of the Islamic belief are explained in this sction to help understand the group under investigation in this study. Islam means the act of submitting or resigning oneself to God. A Muslim is one who submits himself to one God, Allah. The basic belief of Muslims is to witness Allah as only God and Muhammad as the apostle of Allah.

 

The six articles of faith, as revealed in the Quran, are as follows: belief in Allah, His angels, His apostles, the Day of Judgement, and His predestination of good and evil. Five obligatory practices are mentioned generally in the Quran and explained specifically in the Sunnah, the written words and actions of Muhammad. These practices are:

  1. Shahadah (recital of the creed): There is no God but (one) God (Allah), and Muhammad is the messenger of God. This linguistic symbol is used in each of the five prayer calls by Muathen (who call the believers to prayer) before prayer time. The place of prayer is usually the mosque or any other dry place considered legal by the Sunnah for performing prayers.
  2. Salah (prayer): The Muslim must pray at five specific times: before sunrise, at noon, early afternoon, sunset, and before bedtime. In praying, the Muslim faces the Holy Kaabah in Makkah. While prayer in the mosque is encouraged, the Muslim can pray wherever he is. An exception is the Friday prayer, which is usually performed in a group, with special arrangements of religious speech and prayer. Prayer and alms are mentioned together several times in the Quran as good deeds to obtain Gods approval.
  3. Zakah (paying alms): Each Muslim contributes (according to Islamic law) to help other Muslims. Almsgiving is usually devoted to the poor, the needy, the deptor, the traveler, and the official alms collectors. Nowadays, with the absence of an Islamic state, alms are left to the conscience of individual Muslims.
  4. Seyam or Sawm (fasting): During Ramadhan, 29 or 30 days of the ninth Arabic month, adult Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset. At this time no food or drink may be taken. The fast usually ends with Eid al-Fitr, one of the two major Muslim festivals.
  5. Hajj (pilgrimage) to Makka: Every Muslim , circumstances permitting, is obliged to perform the Hajj once in a lifetime. The pilgrimage begins two months After Ramadhan and lasts three days.

 

An individual is considered a true Muslim or believer if he/she follows the above practices in everyday life and follows the rules of Allah and His Prophet, as written in the Quran and Sunnah.

 

Historical Background of Muslims in North America

 

In 1955, Italy celebrated the five hundred anniversary of Columbuss birth. A fair displayed his belongings, which included an Arabic book by Al-Sharif al-Idrisi, an Arab Muslim geographer, which is said to be what inspired Columbus to seek the New World. The first nation in the world officially to recognize United States independence was Morocco, an Arab country, in 1787 (Mehdi, 1978)

 

Oman was the first Arab Muslim nation to have trade relations with the United States government; a trade treaty was signed by Sayyed Said and the United States in 1834. An Omani ship arrived in New York in 1940 to deliver the first cargo of goods (Mehdi, 1983).

 

The first African Muslim group came to the United States in 1717. Religious words such as Allah and Muhammad were circulated among the Arabic-speaking slaves, and a refusal to eat pork was identified with specific names like Omar, Ben Ali, and Ibn Said (Mehdi, 1978)

 

In 1856, five Muslims (two Turks and three Arabs) came to the United States to care for a cargo of 33 camels brought from Arabia to serve the nationss army in the Southeast. One of these Arabs became well-known by the nickname Hadji Ali, which later became HI Jolly (Makdisi, 1959; Mehdi, 1969, 1983).

 

The literature on Muslims in North America showed that beginning of Islam was made in 1887 by an American convert, Muhammad Alexander Russell Webb. The American Consul in Manila, who embraced Islam and established an office in New York City called the Oriental Publishing Company. In 1893, the first issue of Muslim World appeared (Makdisi, 1959).

 

Ross, North Dakota, is the earliest recorded place where Muslims organized for communal prayer in private homes before a mosque was built in 1920 (Mehdi, 1978). The group later was completely integrated in the host society, and in 1948 the mosque was abandoned. The first recorded attempt to build a mosque in America was made in Highland Park, Michigan, 1n 1919. Latter became a church (El-Kholi, 1966).

The mosque that was built in 1924 and still exists today was built in Michigan City, Indiana. Other mosques were built later in such areas as Detroit, Michigan (1922); Cedar Rapids, Iowa (1934), known as the mother mosque (Mehdi, 1978); Washington, D. C. (1952); Toledo, Ohio (1955); and East Lansing, Michigan (1979)

 

On the local level, Muslim associations and organizations were established in many places. For example, an Islamic association was established in Highland Park in 1919. Another association, the young Mens Muslim Association, was established in Brooklyn in 1923 (Haddad, 1983).

 

On the national level, the Federation of Islamic Associations (FIA) was established in the United States and Canada by the efforts of Abdullah Ingram of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, through a personal request to president Eisenhower in 1952. The wave of Arab nationalism led to the creation of the Organization of Arab Students (OAS). Unlike the FIA, the OAS leaders were non-American-born Arabs and advocated nationalist and socialist objectives (Haddad, 1983). The Arab Muslim Brotherhood and non-Arab Indo-Pakistani Jamaati Islam formulated a new Association opposing the OAS objectives. On the first day of January 1983, a new organization called the Muslim Student Association of the United States and Canada (MSA) was announced (Haddad, 1983).

 

In 1982, during the twentieth annual convention of the MSA, a new name, the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), was announced to integrate Muslim efforts under the organization (Al-Ummah, 1981). ISNA has the following project extensions: the North American Islamic Trust (NAIT), a financial institution; the American Trust Publication (ATP); the Islamic Book Service (IBS); the International Graphics Printing Services (IGPS); and the Islamic Teaching Center (ITC). ISNA also has three professional associations: the Islamic Medical Association (IMA), the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS), and the Association of Muslim Scientists and Engineers (AMSE) (MSA, 1980).

 

The increasing number of students sent by oil-producing Arab countries to the United States and the English language used by ISNA created the need for a new organization, the Muslim Arab Youth Association (MAYA). Announced in 1977, this association uses the Arabic language. Leaders of MAYA deny the claim of nationalism in their association by using the Arabic language and explain that language is Islamic, not nationalistic, because it is the language of the Quran, and membership in the associations open to any individual (Arab or non-Arab) who wishes to join (Rabitatu-Asshabab Al-Muslim Al-Arabi, n.d).

 

On the international organizational level, the Muslim World League (MLA) was established in Saudi Arabia in May 1962. The league has several objectives> Its main purpose is the defense of Islam against those who seek to destroy it, and the support and development of Muslim communities around the world. To achieve its goals, the league has established several offices in many nations and in 1974 became a nongovernmental representative of the United Nations. The influence of the MLA on Muslim minorities around the world has been sound (Haddad, 1983).

Although no reliable statistics exist on the number of Muslims living in North America, estimates range from one-half million to six million, depending on the source and purpose for which the number is used (Lovell, 1973). In 1975 the consensus among Muslim leaders was that approximately three million Muslims were living in America (Haddad, 1983). Because there are more than 400 mosques and Islamic associations in the United States, it is likely that this population estimate is reliable, particularly if nonresident students and visitors are included in the figure. (p.25) In these days Muslims are much more than that figure, a Muslim authority have estimated the number of Muslims in North America (the United States and Canada) as more than ten millions, where the number of Mosques increased to pass the one thousand figure.

To live in America as a Muslim, and as an Arab does not differ much from other groups, such as Blacks, Native Americans, Hispanics, or other minority groups. They tend to follow the same trend of residency as groups, but they remained un united following their religious sects or national origins. They almost all share the agony of striving to be known as peaceful group, have certain rights and obligations toward the American Society. But still stereotyping and name calling are common even in the mass media, Films, Journals, etc., (See Dr. Yahyas Article about Arabs and Muslims and race relations in the United States of America, presented in a televised conference sponsored by Lansing Community College in 1991 about interfaith and race relations in the American Society.

Beautiful Arabic and Islamic Names

Hasan Yahya, Ph.D

Are you familiar with the meaning of names in the Arabic and Muslim cultures? If you are not here are some knowledge for you!. This article gives you some important information about naming in the Arab cultures in which also including Islamic names. There is no Arabic name without a meaning, something impressive. I mean it's really great to have a meaning for your name, something that is related to a special even your parents went through, or something precious to the one who called you. Having a meaning to your name adds a special touch and relates you to your being in a nice way. I find it a lot better than having a name without meaning. Old Arab names usually are two types of names: one type for boys and the other for girls. For boys names should carry some sacred names or animal names to show power and dignity like Asad (Lion), Fahd or Nimr (Tiger), Laith or Osamah, or Ghadanfer (alson a lions name), or some words reflect power as Saif (sword), shuja (brave), for girls some of the birds and small animals are good names such as Khansa, Ghazal (dear), Asfurah (bird), or flower. like Warda, Yasmine, Zahra or Fulla; they could mean a good smell of flower, e.g. Areej or Abeer. There are names that mean the singing of birds, like Taghreed, or the voices of Pigeons like Hadeel. You find names that mean the name of a sword, e.g. Saif, Mohannad or Hosam; or ones that are the synonyms of one of the names a lion is called with (since in Arabic you can find more than one word to address one thing with the same meaning), for example: Laith, or Dorgham. Jameel: beautiful, Latif:Nice, luluah is an Arabic name means a pearl, Masa:diamond, and Dana:pearl or a planet, like Qamar, Shams or Kawkab,; or even a star like Najma for her and Najm for him. There are names that mean a high level like Sana'a or Ola. You can find names that express a certain feeling such as Sahar, Gharam or Hayam. There are ones that show appreciation like Shokran, Rida or Irfan, ambition like Monia, Amani, Ahlam and many other beautiful characteristics like Jamil, Jamal, Lutfi, Karam, Jude or Baha'a. Some name express the light of stars, moon, and shining like Nour, or Diya'a for light, or Najm ( star or Qamar (Moon)., , or Najm (satar) or Naiem (Paradise).

Other than that there are people who are named after prophets' names such as Mohammad, Taha, Mustafa, which means the praised, or the selected, Ahmad: means I thank God for. Other names carry names of other Prophets such as: Isa (Jesus), Musa (Moses), Dawod (David) and Yahya (John the Baptist). Yunus (Jonah), Ibrahim (Abraham, Zakariyya (Zachery) or Jibreel (Gabriel) . Other names may describe the names of countries like Falasteen (Palestine) or Sorya (Syria), and there are the names of continents like Asia. Some names are actually the names of months, such as Ramadan, Sha'aban or Rajab. Or even names of days like Khamees or Joma'a. One other interesting thing about names in Arabic is the fact that there are 99 names for God. Each name has its own meaning that expresses a certain characteristic of God. Like Al Salam (peace), Al Rahman and Al Raheem (merciful), Al Mo'oti ( he who gives), Al Mohyi (he who gives life), Al Kareem (the generous), Al Mo'een (he who helps), Al Nour (the light) all these names are some of the beautiful ninety nine names of God in Islam.

By the way, there are names found like Kareem, Mo'een or Nour, that are without the "Al" which equals "the" in English, only few names can be used as names for people without using the "Al", for the "Al" is only used for addressing names of God. Some names are considered old, some are somehow modern, but it's sad to see a lot of Arabs start to give up their great meaningful names and use ones that come from other cultures and other languages, believing it would be cooler that way. My name for example is Hasan and Hussein which means nice (The names of Alis sons). It's used a lot, not a unique name, but I'm still proud of it .(The topic is a very interesting one, it needs more research and investigation) (775 words)

Hasan Yahya is a professor of sociology, an American Arab scholar, and columnist in several newspapers and Internet sites. He resides in Michigan, USA. He authored 20 plus books on sociology, psychology, poetry, politics, short stories in both Arabic and English. He also, published 170 plus articles. His webpage at www.hasanyahya.com

 

Principles of Books Review

Hasan Yahya, a Professor of Sociology

1.      No Body is perfect, I believe. In writing books authors do not revise them because they have confident the reader finds his/her way to understand and criticize what s/he reads. A perfect work does not need criticism. As human beings, surely we can be any thing except perfect, with no mistakes or errors. On the same token, There are a hundred faults in my books, and a hundred things might be said to prove them, but it is needless to do that. A book may be amusing with numerous errors, otherwise it will be very dull without a single absurdity. The simple editing is dictation errors, or editorial errors. The worse in any book is the contradiction of ideas on the same topic.

2.      To digest food, a stomach is required to enable full powers to do that. To a reader, however, s/he needs to enable his/her abilities, mentally and physically to grasp the meaning and visions of a book. A lot of ideas needs close relationship between the writer and the reader. When the writer writes, he has in his/her mind one thing, how to make the ideas reach the reader I its simplicity not in its hard meaning. Something analogous to this takes place with respect to the generality of minds, some understand the ideas whenever they pass before his/her eyes. Other some needs to read the idea twice or three times to grasp the idea and to where its meaning leads. Almost all readers are incapable of thoroughly digesting and assimilating what is presented to them in a very small compass. The rest may be capable of deriving that instruction from a moderate-sized volume,

3.      It is necessary that the attention should be detained for a certain time on the subject; and persons of un-philosophical mind, though they can attend to what they read or hear, are unapt to dwell upon it in the way of subsequent meditation.

4.      After grasping the whole book, the chapters organization is important to be shown accordingly as connected units to understand the whole book.

5.      Praising the positive points in the book content and organization, some of the highlighted statement may be described as examples. If there are negative points concerning the content, organizations, is also recommended to be highlighted if necessary.

6.      The documentation should be clear includes: the author or authors, the publication year, the number of pages, and the publishing house. The price may be also mentioned and compared with similar works.

 

Great Palestinian Personalities Series

Edward Said

By: Hasan Yahya, Ph.D

 

In this series I will try to give an introduction to some great personalities in the Palestinian History. There are many famous personalities across time, but in later years personalities like Haidar Abdel Shafi and Dr. Mustafa Barghouthi, Ibrahim Dakkak, professors Ziad Abu Amr, Mamdouh Al-Aker, Ahmad Harb, Ali Jarbawi, Fouad Moughrabi, legislative council members Rawiya Al-Shawa and Kamal Shirafi, writers Hassan Khadr and Mahmoud Darwish, Raja Shehadeh, Rima Tarazi, Ghassan Al-Khatib, Naseer Aruri, Elia Zureik and many others had a great role in the Palestinian intellectual history.

 

I will begin here with Edward Said, after six years of his depature of this world, He was a leading Palestinian-American intellectual. He was University Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia University before his death in 2003, was identified by Times reporter Peter Wallsten as "a leading intellectual in the Palestinian movement." It would be more accurate to call him "a Palestinian and a leading American intellectual." The author of more than a dozen books, his 1978 book "Orientalism" became the founding work of the new field of cultural studies, and is now assigned at hundreds of colleges and universities and has been translated into more than 30 languages. Said also published political essays in The Nation and elsewhere. He was a fierce critic of Israel's occupation of the West Bank, but also an outspoken secularist who opposed both the doctrine and the tactics of Hamas. In his later years he was also a critic Yasser Arafat's leadership of the PLO.

Said argued that Western writings on the Orient, and the perceptions of the East purveyed in them, are suspect, and cannot be taken at face value. According to him, the history of European colonial rule and political domination over the East distorts the writings of even the most knowledgeable, well-meaning and sympathetic Western Orientalists (a term that he transformed into a pejorative):

I doubt if it is controversial, for example, to say that an Englishman in India or Egypt in the later nineteenth century took an interest in those countries which was never far from their status in his mind as British colonies. To say this may seem quite different from saying that all academic knowledge about India and Egypt is somehow tinged and impressed with, violated by, the gross political fact and yet that is what I am saying in this study of Orientalism. (Said, Orientalism 11)

Rashid Khalidi, in the earl I990s was teaching at Chicago, He "emerged "as one of the most influential commentators from within Middle Eastern Studies." After my graduation from Michigan State University, I was in Chicago, for the Palestinian Congress Election in the United States. I was one of the nominees for the congress election early in the 1990s, but I failed to have enough votes. In that time I have the opportunity to see and meet two great Palestinian scholars, Edward Said and Rashid Khalidi, From that time I was following their shining reputation in the media as intellectual Palestinians from Jerusalem, on the American soil. Time passed, while some of us survived, Edward Said was the most internationally recognized scholar for his reasonable analysis and critics. I wished too many times to write about Palestine in my own research. I was busy in my studies to culminate building of my theory of Crescentology, Theory C. of Conflict Management for Cultural Normalization. I was and still not interested in Politics, my nomination to Palestinian Congress in America was a failed adventure after graduation. Conflict resolution was my interest as an America Palestinian. Recently I directed my efforts to write and comment on the Middle East conflict, my interest however, is to show injustices committed by the west in helping the formation of Israel. In that time I was four years old, when we left to Kofr Qasim for a year, then to Mas-ha village at Nablus district few miles eastward. I ended up in the USA in 1982, where I graduated from Michigan State University with two honor degrees in Philosophy (Sociology and Educational Administration). When I was graduate student in the 1980s, Edward Said was already famous personality. I admired his courage and emotional spirit colored with pure logic. I admired him as a Palestinian explain the injustices in a low tune. But Zionism had the long hand in American media which no one can undermined, But Said had the courage and the ability to write, to criticize, and to provide his undeniable rational for the Palestinian conflict. In 1989, my theory was ready for publication after several presentations in professional sociological conferences. I wrote a message to four people about it, Yassir Arafat, Isaac Rabin, Secretary of the state, and the UN secretary General of the time. In the message, I gave some implications may be used to solve the Israel- Palestinian conflict. I did not receive any response, but some of these implications were shown in some Israeli and Palestinian behavior. In that time, I urged the United States to give the PLO the chance as it was given to Jews for a long time. I insisted on involving diplomacy to include PLO as the sole representative of Palestinians. I was not aware of the secret negotiations took place that year until later. www.dryahyatv.com

 

Factors of Human Development and Progress in the Arab countries.

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

Recently, the Middle East, especially Arab countries where concentrated in the news when it comes to conflict and terrorism? Is it because the Arab world is experiencing the highest rates of religious, sectarian and social violence? Or is it because it is changing to the regressive social change, in terms of human development and security? This article will try to answer these questions in sociological analysis.

Answering the questions may be direct to confess that religious mentality created political differences between groups as well as nations. And that policies to develop human security, physically and mentally is mismanaged by the status quo of traditional tribal governance, which is far from reasoning and critical thinking of moral rational justice. Indirectly, however, the second part of the direct answer, which describes the strong interrelationships between political tyranny and social injustice, which creates turmoil and conflict, on both personal and governmental levels.

Sociologically speaking, most Arab countries are governed by authoritarian [some totalitarian] systems, where social tension has a degree of dissatisfaction lead to conflict, unrest, and violence. Stability in this case cannot be legitimate in the face authoritarian governments. Arab regimes according to these totalitarian governments practice political arrogance (Saudi Arabia, Libya, Syria, Egypt, and other Gulf states for example,) dealing with social problems, using economic injustice, social oppression, and discrimination toward other nationalities, is a common cause leading to tension and rates of instability.

It is a fact that oil Arab countries have raised their income (whose revenue reached the nine billion Dollars a day, where $1.7 of which goes to Saudi Arabia), but still over seventy million Arabs live under the poverty line, for example, with less than $2 Dollars a day.

The recent Human Development Report (HDR) by the United Nations, there are almost 14 million people in Egypt alone, living under poverty line. Of these, four million do not earn their bread, while 20% percent of Egyptians own more than 80% percent of the national wealth. While this is close to the United States rates in wealth distribution, the United States takes care of it poor through social security and health care policies and benefits. Egypt is only an example, but it shares with the same case in many Arab countries, such as Sudan, Algeria, Morocco, Yemen and Syria. They all share authoritarian political system which lacks social justice, even though less rich than the Gulf States, In almost all Arab countries, corruption is becoming a typical behavior on both individual and institutional levels.

To sum up why social regression in the fields of human development, is taking place, and why human security as a slogan for HDR this year is regressing. There are several factors may be noted here according to my previous research on human development in the last 20 years:

1.      Women participation more (than half of societies are handicapped in development in the Arab countries) In reality, it is much more than half. They are between 10 to 30% percent women participate in decision making other than traditional family business? In addition, safeguard the rights of women is needed by changing laws and attitudes which entrench gender-based discrimination. Women in Arab countries have little access to justice and few possibilities of legal redress when they are victims of violence. The increasing number of business women is very weak indicator of progress in women participation, while in some countries women illiteracy reaches 70% percent.

2.      Absence of the rule of law to guarantee essential rights, freedoms and opportunities for political participation for all. Where such absence of justice and secular rule of law is enhanced by faith and religious beliefs as essential obstacles in the process of rule of law development, socially, economically, and politically. Example, in six Arab countries, there is an outright ban on the formation of political parties, while restrictions on political activities and civic organizations in other countries often amount to de facto prohibition. Almost all Arab countries lack of civil rational society institution ruled by laws that respect human rights away from religious belief. But most Arab states are far from this picture.

3.      New rational approaches are needed to deal with problems (locally, regionally and globally) but prevented religiously, on the bases that God gives, God takes, where such belief depends on the other life imagination and status quo respect and fear. The real life where they live in, needs more than belief to build nations rationally and systematically, where both are not characteristics of religious belief.

4.      Causes of tension such as inequality, injustice, and political arrogance and emergency laws, should be replaced by a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. For example unemployment among the youth from governments is ignored, its rate is increasing, in some countries reaches 40% percent. Taking into consideration population growth, Arab countries will have to create 50 million new jobs by 2020 to accommodate the anticipated workforce. The picture looks dim, with the status quo unchanged.

5.      Arsenal and arms accumulation swallow revenues of oil, and takes its toll of national revenues. In some cases danger is imagined from neighboring countries such as Iran and Israel, bribery by billions are paid for arms deals instead of searching rationally to solve social turmoils and tensions which lead to violence.

6.      Ineffectiveness of human mentality concerning basic physical needs, like water, food, health, and environmental disasters, supported by the belief that God solves all problems should come to a holt. Humans are perceived as having no ability to change their future. This factor stands an obstacle as a rule. This is, unfortunately, a stamp of traditional totalitarian systems continuing to be ineffective dealing with daily problems.

7.      Replacing theologian beliefs by secular intellectual reasoning is a must for the Arab countries to be succeeded . Such role is perceived as a disaster in traditional societies, to escaping mental powers of intellectuals and justice reformers.

8.      The concept of nationality is mismanaged by internal and external forces. For example, citizenship is divided into one, two and three divisions where discrimination is practiced against non citizens in most Arab countries.

9.      Population growth threatening the environment . The average number of live births per woman in the Arab region is 3.6 compared to a global average of 2.6. At this growth rate, the region is expected to be home to nearly little less than 400 million people by 2015, up from approximately 330 million currently.

10.  Related to the above factor, sustainable resources for population growth needs institutions, enacting and enforcing laws, to integrate environmental concerns into development planning, and raising environmental awareness through youth education. Furthermore, desertification threatens about 2.9 million square kms , or roughly one-fifth of the total area of Arab countries. Meanwhile, natural resources are being depleted at an alarming rate, as population pressures mount.

 

In conclusion, much of human development reports show these problems, but far short from implementing them without radical political change of authoritarian regimes, and religious approaches deal with secular issues. Traditional heirs of governments have to change, and give way to new generations believe in secularism and scientific development rather than traditional one. Arab countries should move radically to replace traditional idea of human development for the other life, forgetting the necessary life on earth. An idea was enforced in Europe three hundred years ago. Otherwise social progress and human security will continue to be in danger in the Arab nations. (1250 words) www.dryahyatv.com

 

About Philosophy

Philosophy is not a limited doctrine, or a theory made by one person, or produced by one nation, It is a major subject covers human thought in terms of Man and God on earth. The soul and the body, the Church or the State. And therefore, Philosophy is not an easy term to define. The best to answer the question: What is philosophy? Was Bertrand Russell was the best to define philosophy. I will summarize in the following lines. historically it means the conceptions of life and the world in general. Philosophy is a product of two elements: religious conceptions and scientific reasoning. Bernard Russell considers philosophy as an intermediate between theology and science. (xiii) He termed it as the No Mans Land, From Theology, it consists of speculations of matters of definite knowledge. From science, it appeals to human reason rather than to authority-traditional or theological-. Therefore, philosophy is the bridge between theology and science. In other words, The definite knowledge belong to science, and the indefinite (the dogma) which surpasses definite knowledge belong to theology. The No Mans Land, is where the philosophers take place. They are attacked by the two sides. What gives philosophy importance over both is, that philosophy tries to answer, what science cannot answer, and to show that the confident answers of theologians are no longer seem to be convincing, The philosophers believe in the mind and the matter which compose the world. Certain questions belong to philosophy, such as: what is the definition of mind and matter?. And which is subject to the other? Have the universe any unity or purpose? What goals set forth for the universe? Are there laws of nature? No answer in the laboratories for these questions, Theologians have professed to give answers, all too definite; but these answers cause modern minds to suspect. The studying of these questions, if not the answering of them, is the business of philosophy. Bertrand Russell continues to explain the answers from historians point, ever since men became capable of free speculation, their actions, have depended upon their theories as to the world and human life, as to what is good and what is evil.(xiv) In order to understand an age or a nation, we have to understand its philosophy, and to understand its philosophy we must ourselves be in some degree philosophers.

Philosophy as distinct form from theology, began in Greece in the 6th century B.C. Its second great period began in the 11th to the 14th centuries. It was dominated by Catholic Church. The third period Russell described was from the 17th century to present time. Which is dominated exclusively by science while traditional religious beliefs remain important, but felt to need justification. Few of the philosophers of the last period were orthodox from a Catholic standpoint, and the secular State is more important in their speculations than the Church.

Individual liberty and Social solidarity were in continued conflict in all periods. For example, in Greece, the loyalty to the city State was the grounds for social cohesion. In that period Christianity popularized the opinion that Gods duty is more important than the duty to the State. As Socrates and the Apostles said: we ought to obey God rather than Man.

During the period of darkness, the second period between 5th and 11th centuries, the conflict between duty to God and duty to the State took a new form. It became a conflict between the Church and the ruler. The secular power, however, was in the hands of kings and rulers as Barons. The king had to share his power with feudal aristocracy. Armed force was under the king control. But the Church was still victorious by monopolizing education in the absence of kings fighting each other. And the belief that Church still possess the power. The role of Church was representing order in place of anarchy. Later, some numbers were for different reasons at variance with the Pope. For example, Frederick II, invented a new religion, represents the extreme of anti-papal culture. Thomas Aquinas was the classical exponent of papal philosophy in Frederick times. Dante 50 years later, achieved a synthesis, and gave the balance exposition of the medieval period of ideas. The Renaissance papacy led the Reformation, which destroyed the unity of Christendom and the scholastic theory of government that centered around the Pope. In the Renaissance period new knowledge, the Copernican astronomy assigned to the earth and to man a humbler position than before. Pleasure in new facts took the place, among intelligent men of pleasure in reasoning, analyzing, and systematizing.

In politics, all power is ultimately from God, He has delegated power to to the Pope in sacred things and to the Emperor in secular matters. Both the Pope and Emperor lost their importance in the 15th century. The new national monarchies in France, Spain, and England had in their own territories, a power which neither Pope nor Emperor could interfere. This was a sign that the Roman belief in the unity of civilization is no more existed. This political disorder found expression in Machiavellis Prince. From the 16th century, onward, the history of European thought is dominated by Reformation. It began as a revolt of northern nations against the domination of Rome. A combination of National, economic, and moral motives strengthen the revolt against Rome. Northern Europe people and rulers accepted the innovations Luther theology have provided. In Catholic doctrine, divine revelation did not end with the scriptures, but continued through the medium of the Church. Where people can submit as duty their private opinions. Protestants, on the contrary, rejected the Church as a method of revelation: truth was to be sought only in the Bible, where each person could interpret for himself. If men differed in their interpretations, no assigned divinely authority to decide the dispute. In practice, the State claimed the right that had formerly belong to the Church. This was contrary to the fact of the Protestant theory which says: there should be no earthly intermediary between the soul and God.

Russell asserts that modern philosophy begins with Descartes, where the fundamental certainty is the existence of himself and his thoughts. And from which the external world is to be inferred. This was the first stage of development , through Berkeley and Kant, to Fichte. From this extreme, philosophy became attempting, ever since, to escape into the world of everyday reality. Where subjectivism in philosophy and anarchism in politics goes hand in hand.

Against the more insane forms of subjectivism in modern times there was the doctrine of liberalism, which attempted to assign the affairs of government and the individual. Locke began this modern form, he opposed to enthusiasm and individualism as to absolute authority and blind subservience to tradition. Hobbes, Rousseau, and Hegel represented different phases of this theory. Their doctrines are embodied in Cromwell, Napoleon, and modern Germany. These philosophies remove Communism from practice to a little extent of State supremacy or State worship.

Russell summarizes his thought on philosophy by saying: Throughout this long development, from 600 B.C. to the present day, philosophers have been divided into those who wished to tighten social bonds and those who wished to relax them. (xxii)

Russell brilliant conclusion was: In general, important civilizations start with a rigid and superstitious system, gradually relaxed, and leading, at a certain stage, to a period of brilliant genius, while the good of the old tradition remains and the evil inherent in its dissolution has not developed. But as the evil unfolds, it leads to anarchy, thence, inevitably, to a new tyranny, producing a new synthesis secured by a new system of dogma. The doctrine of liberalism is an attempt to escape from this endless oscillation. The essence of liberalism is an attempto secure a social order not based on irrational dogma, and insuring stability without involving more restraints than are necessary for the preservation of the community. Whether this attempt can succeed only the future can determine. (xxiii)

As a result of the above introduction, My Opinion is given in the following section:

It never came to my mind to stand against the basic beliefs of the religions of God. The different and changing testimonies of the followers of these religions make me defend philosophy in the face of practiced religions of the world. It is my position, that if a certain religion promotes hatred of other religions or beliefs, is not a religion. And therefore, it should be attacked on the basis of justice. If the laws of each religion justify hatred of other religions, then it should be understood, that my actions are also, justified.

Ignorance makes people attack other peoples belief and religions. Religions in their basic Godly form, cannot be criticized, we criticize the followers beliefs of hate to other religions. Take for example the defamation of Prophets, or attacks against Muslims, they are not justifiable, the sharp difference between Catholics, and Protestants, and the between Arabs and Jews. Ignorance of the people about the essence of their existence on Earth, is the reason for their conflict. It is not God, who makes people fight each other. It is the belief of people and their self-interest which cause conflict. 1 + 1 = 2, can any one negate this fact in mathematics. The development of pregnancy through several stages, can any one reverse these stages as a biological fact?

Philosophically speaking, mind is the basic ingredient of human differentiate him from animal, and therefore, human should use their minds to promote happiness in life Not in the unseen life. Reality described by philosophers through the separation of Spirit and Body. While spirit cannot be defeated or demolished completely, as we know, the body is limited by age. Age is limited by years, but soul is not limited by years.

Mind should be the strong castle of human to defend superstitious ideas and metaphysical phenomena. Limitation of human mind is combined with limitation of humans age on earth. Other humans may continue using the mind to continue the march toward unfolding knowledge about the Universe. But one human cannot do so. The works of old philosopher are leading but not completing the modern human mind. Socrates, Galileo, Christ, and Pain and many others were excluded from their communities and paid their lives for what they believe in. Their intuition was leading humans to use their minds for the purpose of having happy life, by applying the logic of this life at its best.

Theologians and Time of Uncertainty:

The majority of the ignorant theology, and the powerful authority in the absence of logic have lost in historical events, the essence of human existence on Earth. Even in these days of 2008, the world still governed by the majority ignorant or the powerful authority who believe that war for example, is the only way to protect the self or the nations interest. Unfortunately, the knowledge obtained so far, about the world was used to destroy it. Or to destroy human happiness.

Values are changing, the good of the past is no more good in present . Values of the rich is very much different from the poor. And values of ignorant people are different from those of well advanced in knowledge.

Human Being is no more living for their family, wife, and kids, They are working for their own pleasures. Money is no more serving the purpose of basic needs, it becomes numbers like human beings. Numbers without feelings, without minds, without souls. Money should not be an end by itself, but a means to survive and serve those who need it. Look for the Oil producing countries, how they are fooled by oil companies. Oil is contributing in the world misery of millions of people in poor countries around the world including the countries producing or consuming oil. In the poor countries, war between religious sects is inevitable, and in the rich countries, the distance between poor and rich is sky rocketing. So you might ask, what is the solution for the world to come to mind?

This a good question, and it makes anyone-including myself-nervous. But to be nervous, is not the right way to answer the question. The question, anyhow, is part of the answer. The terms used in the question, how? Read it again, we may replace the first term (what?) in the question by the last term (mind) to become, mind is the solution for the world to come to. As you see, the solution is using the mind. Not emotions or feelings or faiths. It is simply the mind which lead us to understand ourselves, to understand our environmental surroundings, the nature, and the creatures in it. Is this hard to grasp or comprehend ? I did not think so. In the case of religions, if Jews, Christians, Muslims or any other faith followers use their minds to solve their problems, especially in Palestine, sure they will be able to reach a conflict-free world all over the world.

Faith is like man and women, man or woman cannot accept the fact that a woman or a man cheat on them, Their ego will be destroyed by the free will of others. The other man, or the other woman.

Thomas Pain and Bertrand Russell:

In his Why I am Not a Christian. About Thomas Pain, the British and later American philosopher, and his Age of Reason, writing. Bertrand Russell, also originally British (American) wrote:

In his own neighborhood, he (Pain) was mobbed and refused a seat in the stagecoach; three years before his death he was not allowed to vote, on the alleged ground of his being a foreigner. He was falsely accused of immortality and intemperance, and in his last years were spent in solitude and poverty. He died in 1809.(p145) The greater part of the Age of Reason consists of criticism of the Old Testament from a moral point of view. Very few nowadays would regard the massacres of men, women, and children recorded in Pentateuch and Book of Joshua as model of righteousness, but in Pains day it was considered impious to criticize the Israelites when the Old Testament approved of them.(p.143) The Age of Reason ventured to doubt whether God really commanded that all males and married women among the Midianites should be slaughtered, while the maidens should be preserved. (p.144)

In my belief, God does NOT belong ONLY to Jews or ONLY to Muslims, or for that matter to Christians or ONLY to any other sect, God belong to all, humans or else. Gods are many in peoples faiths, but religion of God is ONE religion. God, therefore, could not choose certain people to be chosen, or to be the best nation, or give birth to destructive ideas, or give orders saving one part of people, and to destroying other parts of people in peace or in war. God does not give permission to kill, to exploit, or to deceive other people for your own self-interest. It is not good for you, bad for others. The good should be good for you and for the others in the same time. It is unbelievable to the mind to argue about the value of ones right by denying the other ones right. Otherwise, we are ignorant and irrational persons. This is why philosophers are different from lay men. Reasoning should lead the mind to happiness, not to satisfy self interest, or sect, or belief, or ignorant majority (traditional, conservative, or liberals, in any place, or in any time). Rational history of rationality can tell us. I think Crescentology rules, should lead the world toward happiness in this world

Russell continues: During the American Revolution Pain inspired enthusiasm and confidence, and thereby did much to facilitate victory. Governments, he says, may all be comprehended under three heads. First, superstition. Secondly, power. Thirdly, the common interest of society and the common rights man. The first was a government of priestcraft , the second of conquerors, the third of reason. (139)

About the Palestinian Problem: I strongly support the third, I am intellectually inclined to support freedom and independence of Palestine - freedom from aristocracy, and opinion sensors, and every species of tyranny- for the cause of Palestine. Dogmatism in Gaza, and secularisms of the West Bank Authority are not adequately selected to govern their constituents. It is believed that suffering of the public and the poor in the refugee camps in both territories should be the bases of future solution. Palestinians nowadays, are divided politically and ideologically into two groups, The first under dogmatic rules, and the second under the power of money, wealth, and lack of democracy. Palestinians have the right to decide their future in a rational democratic way. Palestinians have to decide whether to continue suffering or to consider Israel as a neighbor State, and live in peace, for ever.

The Jews were expelled many times through their history, Jewish and non-Jewish historians may tell more about how many time relinquishing of Jews happened in history, the Assyrians removed them in 722 B.C., Nebuchchadrezzar destroyed the temple and removed a large part of the population to Babylon in 586 B.C., there were a large-scale murders of Jews in Germany at the time of the first crusade, and in England, at the time of the third crusade. on the accession of Richard Coeur de Lion. Massacre of large number of Jews in Europe, those who were not massacred were often despoiled of their property and forcibly baptized. At York, where the first Christian Emperor had begun his reign, was aptly enough, the scene of on of the most appalling mass-atrocities against Jews. No one can imagine how horrible was the holocaust in recent history against the Jews in Europe in the 1940s of last century. Palestinians also suffered, expelled, and moved, but compared to the sufferings of Jews in history is not qualified. I believe, Jews have to be given finally safe haven in Israel. Jews have has to be given assurances not to be terrorized with rockets, and suicide bombers supported by theologians. it is her right, even though they are the occupiers of the land. They will not stop terrorizing Palestinians unless Israelis' security was guaranteed. Stop the rockets and suicide bombers, and let us see how much Israel respects its word. I hope Palestinians will be given time to live peacefully without danger. Let Palestinian live as a nation like other nations. Hate has to stop, and mutual recognition temporarily-at least for 50 years to come-have to lead both Israelis and Palestinians to the right track. Jews have lived for many long years together in almost all Arab countries. This time of history is for powerful denomination worldwide, let the minds and hearts reduce that power by compromising for the sake of new generations. Let Palestinians confess, they are defeated (with all Arabs failed attempts) in liberating Palestine, but they did not relinquished. Palestinians still have their rights to decide. Give both Israelis and Palestinians the next 50 years to live in peace. Both diverse it. No one can guess about history. But the problem will vanish through the years, I guess. History is our teacher, and people make history not the other way around.

About Modern Arab States:

Arab States formation was made away from their own choice. In 1917, Britain and France divided the states under their control in Sikes-Pico meeting. Syria and Lebanon were under France denomination, while Jordan, Palestine and Iraq became under the British rule. Borders were made by the two nations. The population in these countries follow the maps made by the super powers of the time. Leaders, lately who accept the Occupier rules, was given authority and support to establish their government. Nationalism, was the worst slogan in recent history provided by modern world. Nationalism became for those who have the power against minorities who have no power. In every Arab country, nationalism was promoted to support the status quo of government. Leaders were chosen according tribalism, and sectarianism. Common people were suppressed and prevented from government jobs and military. And ignorant Bedouins were recruited to protect the rulers in every country. Those of large families (Land Lords)who were supporting the British and the French occupation were also recruited around the ruler to protect him. Later, supporters of the governing party have superiority over other sections in their nations. Like the case of resurrection al-Baath Party, or sheikhdom rulers side.

For Arabs, democracy is far from attending, traditionalism, aristocracy, and tribalism are strongly oppose democratic systems, for the sake of their self-interest, in many Arab countries, tyranny is still practiced, and the only opinion heard is the opinion of the governing party. In the Soviet Union, tyranny did not last forever, in Germany the same, and in Italy it did not last. In the Arab countries too, it will not last forever, I hope in the Arabic countries tyranny of tribalism and sect dogmatism will come to an end soon, and to begin democracy and freedom of minds and souls. Justice have to prevail, and equal opportunities have to be practiced to be ascribed to democratic system.

On Theology:

Philosophy is concerned with defining human goals in daily life not in the eternal life. This may create conflict with religion; the Islamic civilization has experienced numerous controversies between theologians and (fuqaha) and freethinkers or philosophers in this respect. As I see it, theology is not promoting human happiness, but human suffering for simple reason, the idea of sin. The feeling of sin, and the hard worldly punishment as well as in the hereafter-in the hill-fire, for those who commit adultery or drinking wine are in opposition to personal freedom and democratic principles. God already picked up those who are in Heaven, and those who are assigned to Hill whether or not they sin in their lives. And Gods will, cannot change by not following his commandments. He is much more than involving Himself in worldly matters of human beings. Thos who benefit from Gods rules, are censoring justice and freedom for their own interests. Now we come to censorship of enlightened opinions and freethinking.

Examples of censorship of freethinking and actions against the status quo:

In their late meeting, the Gulf States Rulers announced a rule, to prevent media of the satellite and writers from criticizing the States heads. This decree is dangerous for two reasons. The self-interest of the powerful authority, and the ignorance of civilized world. Where these governments are still believe in tribalism and traditions, which is recklessly hurled against anyone whose opinion is disliked. In the march to democracy and freedom, freethinkers have to lead the nations toward freedom and democracy. But they are prevented and expelled. But nothing would remain not changing, and nothing eternal, we are taught, except God. The appointed Censorship agency, for the government in every Arab country, whether they are ignorant or educated, they have to support the governing king or Emir, or president or sultan. They have to sensor any opinion against them. This is insane in the march for freedom and democracy. Like in the Soviet Union in the time of Czar, and later in time Stalin, sensors were highly supported to sensor any opposition to the emperor in the first example, and to the communist party in the second.

About Academic freedom:

The essence of academic freedom, is that teachers should be selected for their expertness in the subject they are to teach and that the judges of this expertness should be other experts. Experts on the subject matter can be judged with a fair degree of unanimity. The Saudi government send unqualified representatives to choose teachers from other Arab countries, they were testing teachers of their knowledge of Quran. They asked them to recite some Suras and Ayat from Quran such as, al-fatihah, and al-nas or al-alaq suras. If the teacher fails to recite, they are not accepted in the job, even the job in teaching mathematics or chemistry, or literature. Toleration with those who cannot recite Quran, is essential part of wise democracy. But it is not always sufficiently practiced.

What Happened to Muslims organizations in the United States:

The union between Muslim Brothers and Jamati Islam of Pakistan was not made for the benefits of Muslims, but for the benefits of the community and associations leaders. ISNA was formulated to curb the illegality of forming associations by foreigner students. The need for a legal status in the United States for Islam to be, is to be controlled by America, therefore, Those Muslim Americans from the Middle East (the Muslim Brothers) and the continent of India (Pakistan and Bangladesh-Jamati Islam) should control Muslims in the United States. They are already rich by the zakat collection, and sadaqat of Muslims, and built their empires upon the needs of Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca. In Argantina, they invest their money to rais cattles and sheep to be sold to Muslim pilgrimage every year. The new leaders began to use some clergy (men) imams from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Pakistanis for the purpose of leading the prayer, and answering certain theological questions. Some people will be angry to read this, ISNA, was and still a puppet in the CIA and self-interest hands. To protect their interests in America as land owners, investors, and business owners and for printing Islamic books, Financially they are secured authoritarians. The doors of interfaith were made open for them to waste the time of their followers. Followers of Islam, like the followers of Christians, or those of Jewish faith were all deceived their followers in America. Muslims theological leaders in America still follow the old testaments of Muhammad and his companions. Friday Prayer is performed as Muhammad taught them, and even the content, should be of the way Muhammad begins, continues and ends the ceremony. The Muslim immediate concerns in almost all Muslim Mosques in the United States are rarely touched and dealt with. The revenues collected every months from alms (Zakat), or donations (Sadaqat) are censored to talk about their use. Muslims are fooled by the clergy men who always ask for more donations. And no one has the right to inquire, where these donations go. Or who benefit from them. They built schools as investment of the money, they bought lands, restaurants, businesses, and support the idea of Martyrs in the cause of God. Instead of using these donations to promote their communities participation in the American Society, and to control some of the media, as the Jewish leaders did in the last fifty years. Muslims are inferiors to the disbelievers, or those who may inquire about these donations. This is locally may be resolved, but internationally it is difficult to solve. The Muslims are far from organizing themselves on a scientific grounds, I remember an organization leader when he had a meeting with the employees, his lecture was totally about God, and the Prophet, nothing in his speech was about the daily problems face the business, or rules of modern management or communication rules with others or how to promote business. It was like Friday prayer. Associations and organizations should have goals, and processes to make itself for the benefits of Muslims, as the Jewish associations. The Jews are far ahead on any other religion, in taking care of Jews anywhere on Earth. No religion resemble them. And I believe, they should be commended for their successful efforts.

The idea of intellectuals and secularists is very dangerous one to the theologians in every religion. In the Jewish faith, in the Christian faith, and in the Islamic faith. They all share intolerance, lack of Judgment and ignorance of ideas might unite between them. Politics is riding almost all followers of the three mentioned religions. Their followers anywhere are drugged by the teachings of their clergy men, as they are the only followers of God who will open his paradise for them and denies other religions from Heaven, but to expel them in Hill.

In Christian faith, Jesus Image in one church, is different from other churches. Catholic beliefs are different from those of Protestant beliefs. And both are misused by the Old Testament, or the New one.

In the Jewish faith, however, it took a very different direction, Jews have understood early the power of mind, through Espinoza, Marx, and Durkheim, to control circumstances of the modern world. Psychology, Medicine and attorneys of law, In addition the field of jewels business and banking were the means to control people. These fields were controlled in the United States by Jews. Psychology departments and tests writings, have changed the image of Jews in America after the 1940s. Politically they supported those who may support Jewish goals, such as creating and supporting the State of Israel. They were very successful in that field. Most Americans follow blindly this direction.

Both Christian and Jewish faiths were united early as Judeo-Christian faith to stand opposing the religion of Islam. Muslims are not less in their position from other religions. All religions share conflict with the other. And none is true in their allegations.

Theology has to come to an end, and to die , in order freedom and democracy to rise. The intellectual mind have to take the lead in the world as well as individual nations. The need is not for war between nations, or religions, or civilizations, but to satisfy the needs of the people everywhere on Earth in spite of their levels of belief, or creed, nationality or color, or level of education. This is my opinion, and for it I will continue to live, in the coming life. Crescentology theory if applied will lead to this end. I guess.

 

Qualities of Good Writers and Successful Teacher?

By Hasan Yahya, Ph.D

 

This article unlike other articles I wrote previously for Future.info. with little difference. It is about writing itself and teaching as a noble career in many societies in the East and west, as well as in south and north. In all religions and all ethnic groups, teachers are the noble people on earth whom I personally cherished and respected all my life. Both jobs writing and teaching almost all people are familiar with in life.

Writing is a talent, no doubt, and an art for sure in the same time. To write an article or any piece of art is an easy task, but it is produced after certain questions such as about what? And How? When? and Where to publish. Time and space are included . If these questions were answered, one question remains to be answered too. Ye, you guessed right! For whom which forms the audience or interested in what the subject you write.

Many people may say: If I have the time , I might write a good book. Others however, may say: I like what I read. In any case it does not matter whither you use a pen or a pencil, or a feather like old days, which are rarely used in modern times except in journalistic editing and correction of already written piece.

In these days, the magic word is computer. The computer is a great invention by using the internet which constitute an unlimited source of almost all fields of knowledge for all ages who have little experience with certain computer skills. The computer helps writers and readers alike. It also helps in spelling, editing, omitting, exchanging sentences, and words or letters, and even paragraphs and whole pages.

No matter these days if you write an short article or a book, in any language, Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Japanese. Or Urdu, (alphabetically), computer gives you the power for even translation.

As far as this article is concerned, so far, readers are getting some familiar answers for the questions posed above. But readers may not be professionals, but they have taste and emotions as well as minds , so they like or dislike what they read. They might accept an argument or reject it. In any case, readers are the wealth of any educated nation. Readers include all types of people, all types of personalities, therefore, any type of writing will have an audience interested in reading occasionally or on daily basis like reading a text book, a newspaper, a book, or magazine, there are always readers for any type of writing. In America , as well as Africa, India, Indonesia, or in many other countries, there are thousands of jobs needed in life. Too many publications are written by experts in certain fields, farmers, gardeners, workers, carpenters, and even scientists on how to to learn about making things or even how to look happy, to be optimistic, and to increase your memory. There is no area in knowledge is missed by writers.

Writing is a craft, a practice of art, such as music, painting, ceramic, and even playing football, they are all talented and smart people have the will to excel beside their talent. It is a process of learning may begin immediately after birth. Therefore, it is possible to create a talented writer.

What concerns young writers is to find encouragement from readers close to the writer first, before the farther in distance or space. Many young writers are talented in their middle or high schools. In fact, it is an not exaggeration to say that some children in the elementary stage show early talents in imagination and smart ideas or imitations. But who will discover these talented young writers during their school years? Of course, preliminary thinking may bring parents or elder brother or sister or close relatives in the family, this it true, but the most factor and may be the best to discover young talents is the teacher his/herself with an expert ears and eyes. Teachers can be successful in teaching. Those successful and talented teachers are mostly the discoverers of talented students, confer with parents to cooperate how to encourage and promote young writers talents to present an art-like pieces.

Teachers, however, I mean to be a successful teachers in order to fulfill their duty toward young generations in any society or culture, certain elements have to be found by education or in-service workshops to reach the level of successful teacher. The rest of the article now will pinpoint these elements of successful teachers.

Elements of Successful Teachers for all educational stages from pre-school to college or university. Top successful teachers in every field share common characteristics and attitudes. If you want to be among the top instructors in your field, with a little previous planning, try incorporating these seven outstanding attributes for success:

 

1. Clarity--successful people know who they are and where they are going. They have developed a clarity of vision of their primary and secondary goals. In any time, take a moment to reflect on your progress in life and why you are teaching. How does teaching correspond to your values, and what do you hope to achieve in your classes?

2. Courage--often called the foremost of the virtues--is the ability to act as if you have already attained your goal. Courageous people know that progress requires effort, persistence and the will to overcome obstacles. Courage is the driving force behind those who continuously seek improvement ideas, modify them where necessary and apply them.

3. Common sense--the ability to learn from experience or to adapt new learning activities and teaching methods. Instructors with common sense strive for intellectual honesty and maintain an objectivity toward the teaching/learning process. They seek to find what works and share it with others to promote the common goal by listening and encouraging your student to excel.

4. Career conception in other words, see yourself as your own boss. Embracing the self-employed attitude means that you take charge of your career instead of just letting it happen. Let your love to your work be imitated by your students.

5. Commitment to a mission--it is known that almost everything you do in teaching follows from your personal mission and that of your department or institution. Commitment to an overriding purpose results in a positive mental frame work that helps to build your instructional design and heighten the effectiveness of your communication with students and colleagues.

6. Fairness in treatment among your students enhances your respect among them, and make them show their hidden talents and make yourself a discoverer. Try these secrets in your career as a teacher, and focus on the secrets of successful teachers. You will be discoverer of young writers in your school environment.

 

Finally, as you see there is no seventh element, but you are smart reader to add may be another five or six characteristics of successful teacher as yourself. I am sure, you will and you CAN. By the way to remind you, Buddha, Iqbal, Jesus, Moses, and Muhammad, were great talented teachers in history and in their own people. If you become a good writer or successful teacher you will be close to be proud as a good exemplar like them for many people not only in your nation but in the whole world.

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About the author:

Hasan Yahya is an American Arab scholar, and a professor of sociology. He published 25 plus books and 220 plus articles on sociology, psychology, politics, poetry, IQ Test Measurement and short stories in both Arabic and English. His articles may be found on articlesbase.com, Face book and other internet sites. His recent book published on Amazon titled: Lawlaki: Lawlaki Poetry Diwan, Zawjat lil-Bay's: Tales and articles, 2000 Bayt Min al-Shi'r al-Arabi and al-Zawaj wal-Jinse fil-Alam, Zawjat lil-Bay, and al-Zawaj wal-Jinse fil Alam, all in Arabic.(On Amazon, 2009). His recent activities reflects his talents and knowledge on youtubes Dr. Yahya Channel TV under the name of askdryahya. www.hasanyahya.com

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Dr. Hasan Yahya Books On Amazon

Books in English:

 

Psychology: (1 Book)

Personality and Stress Management https://www.createspace.com/3355058

 

Religion: (Two books)

Islam: Finds Its Way https://www.createspace.com/3436642

Brief Arab and Islamic Ethics (bilingual) - . https://www.createspace.com/3355806

 

Poetry: (2 Books)

Poetry Diwan: Love Fear and Hope https://www.createspace.com/3355775

Moon Flowers https://www.createspace.com/3355058

 

Politics and Sociology: (5 Books)

Arab Palestinians and Jews: Sociological Approach https://www.createspace.com/3374903

The Beast in Me, America https://www.createspace.com/3354440

Crescentologism https://www.createspace.com/3436624

Crescentology https://www.createspace.com/3335792

Legal Adultery: Sexuality & World Cultures https://www.createspace.com/3399546

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Books in Arabic:

 

Religion:

Al-Islam Wa-Masalih al-Bashar

https://www.createspace.com/3436902

 

Sociology:

Ílm al-Ijtimaal-Tatbeeqi Applied Sociology

https://www.createspace.com/3356480

AdwaAla alFikr al-Gharbi

https://www.createspace.com/3356556

 

 

Kids Books:

55 Stories 4 Kids 55

https://www.createspace.com/3354521

20-20 Hikayat Wa-Aghani Lil-Atfal

- Tales and Songs for Kids

https://www.createspace.com/3443764

Al-Tiflah al-Mithaliyyah-Qisas Arabiyyah :

https://www.createspace.com/3443745

 

Sociology:

Research Methods in Social Sciences

https://www.createspace.com/3356483

Crescentology and Human Nature

https://www.createspace.com/3359215

Maqalat Ijtimayah (On Social Development)

https://www.createspace.com/3375716

 

Psychology: (2 books)

Therapy Cases: Mental and Physical :

https://www.createspace.com/3356551

Arabic IQ Measurements

https://www.createspace.com/3357077

 

Short Stories and Plays: (5 books)

28 Arabic Short Stories 28

https://www.createspace.com/3355774

Al-Shart al-Thalith: Plays, Stories and knowledge :

https://www.createspace.com/3436618

Tales From America :

https://www.createspace.com/3357431

Zawjatu al-Sultan :

https://www.createspace.com/3391866

Zawjat Lil-Bay :

https://www.createspace.com/3394072

 

Family, Love and Marriage: (3 books)

Marriage and Sex in World Cultures- Al-Zawaj Wal-Jinse

https://www.createspace.com/3398110

Qawad al-Hub wa-l-Zawaj : Love and Marriage Rules

https://www.createspace.com/3413802

Al-Hub wal-Abraj

https://www.createspace.com/3413879

 

 

 

Six Diwans: Poetry in Arabic (5 books)

2000 Bayt Min Uyoon al-Shir al-Arabi 2000 ( )

https://www.createspace.com/3394075

Diwan al-Qadar

https://www.createspace.com/3359583

Diwan Bahri al-Aghani

https://www.createspace.com/3359585

Diwan Lawlaki: Aghani Lil-Hayah :

https://www.createspace.com/3391862

Kabri Aálik: Be Mindful :

https://www.createspace.com/3413862