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Posted by Prof. Hasan A. Yahya

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The Core of Logic For Arab and Muslim World Part I

Author: hasan yahya

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.D

Builing on the logic roots of issues dealt with by philosophers on civilization progress and liberal arts universities in Europe, Liberal arts in the Arab and Muslim world have to learn from the European experience and style of thinking including dialectic and logic in studying philosophy which combined old and new logic. The old logic of Aristotle and al-ghazali, and the new logic of Ibn Sina (Avecina), Ibn Rushd (Averroes), where the first emphasizes the theological philosophy, and the second two emphasize Aristotlae Prior Analtics, Posterior, Analytics Topics and sophistical refutations, known after Arab, Jewish, and Christian Philosophers translations of Averroes and Ibn Sina, Moses Maimonides, and Thomas Aquinas.

  1. The above statement is suggested as proposal for the questions examine both theology and philosophy. While Islam does not and cannot ignore religion in any aspect of life as ethical standards, it can tolerate liberal sciences in arts and humanities following philosophical assumptions about the nature of things or the matter and motion, because the idea of Double Truth Theory, where the hierarchy of intelligence on the top explains that philosophic truth may contradict, though not negate or invalidate religions truth even when reason and revelation being separate domains. The first intelligence by which all orders are based in terms of creation, which viewed as eternal process by which God is the One and Only Who is responsible for the order and nature of the universe which does not negate Islamic belief of Oneness of God.

The idea that there is Only One God cannot be proved logically except with belief in revelation. However, the negating of this statement or opposing it may say there is no God, also cannot be proved logically. In both cases philosophy dealt with this issue in terms of cause-effect or the highest in hierarchy of ranking things or in terms of subject-predicates anology.

For Averroes, the Quran in fact, requires the intellectical elites (Ulama) to pursue philosophy Where the core is logic. There are few of these intellectuals who can distinguish between demonstration on the one hand and not demonstration on the other in a true argument. Because demonstration term followed creation of the matter first to be demonstrated by logic. The example given by philosophers is the wood and metal, in the form of a door of a house or put in the house, where no demonstration of objects can be done unless they are formulated in a shape, size, weight, and motion. This remind us of substance (Existence) and existing things. In liberal arts, and sciences the argument is not how and why the substance was created [Including human beings], but how they demonstrate their existence on earth.

In Islam Quran, as well as Torah and Bible, expresses its truth, by three levels corresponding to three main intellectual classes, namely, demonstratively, dialectically, and rhetorically, demonstrative as valid reasoning from necessary creation, as Aristotle, Averroes, and Avicena demonstrated in their thought on matter and existence as the highist form of rational discourse and only produces perfect knowledge. It is also, the only one guarantees unity of truth.

However, the other two (dialectical and rhetoric) forms of discourse have an important social and cultural functions [through religion]. To help people in Arab and non Arab in the Muslim world to live according to their Gods will. Unfortunately the two forms in both worlds can describe intellectuals in these countries since the days of al-Ghazali. Which neglect to follow the demonstration form of logic in the argument.

The idea of existence in philosophy is well understood that revelation is the best, though, philosophic wisdom ought not to be thought of those who are not fit for it. As this results in errors lead to fragmentation of sects and heresies. Furthermore, the wisdom of revelation is supreme in that it addresses itself to all in appropriate ways and degrees. Take for example, study of biology [or mathematics, or physics] does not seek to prove who gives life, but only deals with the nature of life demonstration through organs in humans, plants, and animals. The idea was in fact supported by Avicena in his study of biology. For him, things exist either by nature or essence or choice and will, and both are true and good.

One more point to this argument, Avecinas declaration that the creation is necessity for life to begin and to end., where this idea was rejected on theological basis by al-Ghazali followers. The points which created and elecited strong and diverse reactions among philosophers are immortality of the soul, the eternity of the world and the relation between religion and philosophy which diverse philosophers in the process of reconciling reason and revelation.

Going back to the title of this article, we suggest for the Arab and Muslim world not to neglect the three forms of logic, especially the dialectical and rhetorical forms when dealing to initiate arts and sciences. And encourage them to begin demonstration principles of the matter of creation which I think, does not contradict theological values or negate the existence of Gods creations, but negate or contradict behavioral practices demonstrated logically or otherwise among the various divisions of sects. By applying the three forms, the demonstration, the dialectical and the rhetorical will enhance practicing logic of philosophy, and the possible logic in the other two. Where the first is pure logic which is demonstration, while the others are combining contrary and rhetorical beliefs in any any religion.

Hasan Yahya, is an American Arab scholar, a professor of Sociology, a columnist at wfol.tv, Malaysia, and TINA International News Agency, Chicago, USA. www.hasanyahya.com

About the Author:

About The Author-- Hasan Yahya is an Arab American scholar, he published 20 plus books and 180 plus articles on sociology, psychology, politics, poetry, IQ Test Measurment and short stories in both Arabic and English. His articles may be found on articlesbase.com, Facebook and other internet sites. Dr. Yahya resides in Michigan, USA.

Article Source: ArticlesBase.com - The Core of Logic For Arab and Muslim World Part I

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