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DryahyaTV Channel Broadcast from the United States



About Dr. Hasan Yahya,

The Owner of DryahyaTV.com

 

Dr. Yahya, is a human being, philosopher, Palestinian Jordanian Arab Muslim American scholar. His thoughts and actions were made through instructions, teaching, or writing. To know more about dr. Yahya, this page will lead you to many aspects of the author’s critical ideas and thoughts. He covered a very large subject matter, in Arabs, Muslims, Islam, social change, sociology, psychology, history, philosophy, poetry, Arabic Poetry, art of teaching, and Arab-Muslim relations with the western nations and cultures.  His research was conducted about human behavior in a rapidly changing society, taking into consideration, the global political changes and the position of reducing conflicts of  religion, beliefs, education policies, and culture in personal or national development. He is interested mostly in population change and demography. His theory of Crescentology-Theory C. is expected to give  a new science for sociologists  to be more involved in social development and conflict management on both macro as well as micro levels. It is a science combines philosophy with sociology, psychology and education in an interdisciplinary major to create new job named socio-therapist. Universities and national institutions should take Crescentology theory rules to create a new world of peace through exchanging true knowledge about each other among individuals, groups, organizations, or nations. Understanding is dependent on knowledge, where appreciation follows to lead to a state of compromising and  a state of conflict free cultures, nations, organizations, groups, and persons. Dr. Yahya believes in human rights, freedom of speech,  equality, justice,  liberty to pursue     happiness. Politically he is liberal with conservative belief. Dr. Yahya does not believe in magic, he believes in human mind powers and human hearts to come together to close the gap between cultures, reilgions, beliefs,  and philosophies.  Finally;

Anyone is  welcome to contact dr. Yahya on his email: askdryahya@yahoo.com  to ask any question about life, personal happiness, anger, stress, learning, problem – solving, decision-making, fears and hopes or any other topic.  Dr. Yahya will be very pleased to provide the  help necessary  to those who wants  to know . Because Dr. Yahya’s belief is: knowledge is power for the mind to control self, ethically, and spiritually.

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PART TWO

HASAN A. YAHYA, Ph.Ds

السيرة الذاتية

للدكتور

حسن عبد القادر يحيى

 

 

حول المؤلف

 

About the author

 

Who's Dr. Hasan A. Yahya?

Dr Hasan Yahya is a human being and human rights believer, a professor, a philosopher, a Palestinian by origin, a Jordanian-American by nationality and education, a Kuwaiti by living his early career, a scholar by his thoughts. He is a professor of sociology and an authority on Arab and Muslim cultures.
His life, thoughts and actions were made through instruction, teaching, communicating, negotiating or writing. To know more about Dr. Yahya, this page will guide you to many aspects of dr. Yahya Life and writings on critical ideas and thoughts. He covered a very large subject matter: Arabs, Muslims, Islam, social change, sociology, psychology, history, philosophy, poetry, Arabic Poetry, art of teaching, and Arab-Muslim relations with the western nations and cultures. His research was conducted about human behavior, life satisfaction, and social change in a rapidly changing world, taking into consideration, the advance technology, the global political changes and the position of reducing conflicts among religions, beliefs, education policies, and cultures for the purpose of personal or national development. He is interested mostly in population movement and demography and social behavior after migration from place of origin to a place of destination. His theory of Crescentology-Theory C. is expected to be a new science for sociologists and psychologists to be more involved in personal and social development and the process of conflict management on both macro as well as micro levels. It is a science combines philosophy with sociology, psychology and education in an interdisciplinary major to create new job named socio-therapist. Universities and national institutions should take Crescentology theory rules to create a new world of peace through exchanging true knowledge about each other among individuals (male/female), groups (Small or large), organizations (X, Y, and Z), or nations (underdeveloped, developing, or overdeveloped).

Understanding in his theory is dependent on knowledge, where appreciation follows to lead to a state of compromising and state of conflict free cultures, nations, organizations, groups, and persons. Dr. Yahya believes in human rights, freedom of speech, equality, justice, liberty to pursue happiness. Politically he is liberal (by choice) with conservative beliefs (by force). Dr. Yahya does not believe in magic, or superiority, he believes in the power of human mind and human hearts to come together to close the gap between cultures of the East and the West, religions of the Globe, minority groups' beliefs, and philosophies of the world. Finally;

Dr yahya is an expert on Arab and Muslim Culture, he published 25 books so far, and 250 plus articles on Arab Islam and Palestinians, sociology, psychology, measurement, poetry, politics, ,religion and  short stories.


Anyone is welcome to contact dr. Yahya on his email: askdryahya@yahoo.com to ask any question about life, personal happiness, anger, stress, learning, problem�solving, decision-making, fears and hopes or any other topic. Dr. Yahya will be very pleased to provide the help necessary to those who wants to know . Because Yahya belief is: knowledge is power for the mind to control self, ethically, and spiritually.

Hasan Yahya was born at a small village called Majdal-Yaba in Mandate Palestine (1944). He migrated as a refugee to Mes-ha, a village west of Nablus (West Bank), then moved with his family to Zarka, 25 km north of Amman – Jordan. He finished the high school at Zarka Secondary School, 1963. He was appointed as a teacher in the same year.  Studied Law first at Damascus University, then Lebanon University.

He moved to Kuwait. Where he got married in 1967.  He was working at Kuwait Television, taught at bilingual School, and Kuwait University.

In 1982, Hasan left to the United States to  continue his education at Michigan State University. He got the Master Degree in 1983,  the Ph.D degree in 1988 in Education (Psychology of Administration ). In 1991, He obtained his post degree in research, the result was a second Ph.D degree in Social Psychology. He was the only student who enrolled ever to pursue two simultaneous Ph.D programs. Professor Yahya employment history began as a supervisor of a joint project to rehabilitate Youth (out of prison) by  Michigan State University and Intermediate School Districts. He worked also as a Teacher Assistant and lecturer in the same university. He was offered a position at Lansing Community College as well as Jackson Community College where he was assistant professor,  then associate professor, then full professor. He taught Sociology, psychology, education, criminology and research methods. He supervised 19 Master and Ph.D candidates on personal, economic  and social development topics. Professor Yahya published dozens of articles and research reports in local, regional, and international journals. His interest covers local, regional and global conflicts.  He also, was a visiting professor at Eastern Michigan University to give Conflict Management courses. Prof. Yahya accepted an offer to join Zayed University Faculty Team in 1998, then he accepted an offer from Ajman University of Science and Technology in 2001.

Social Activities and Community Participation: Dr. Yahya was a national figure on Diversity and Islamic Issues in the United States, with special attention to Race Relations and Psychology of Assimilation. He was invited as a public speaker to many TV shows and interviews in many countries. His philosophy includes enhancing others with knowledge to appreciate the others,  and to compromise with others in order to live peacefully with others. This philosophy was the backgrounds of his theory, called “ Theory C. of Conflict Management” developed later to a Science of Cultural Normalization under the title: “Crescentology.”  

تعريف بالشاعروالإديب المهجري العربي الأمريكي / الدكتور حسن عبدالقادر يحيى

 ولد الدكتور يحيى في قرية مجدل يافا (الصادق) في فلسطين عام 1944. ودرس الابتدائية في مدرسة بديا- قضاء نابلس. ثم رحل مع العائلة الى الزرقاء قرب عمان عام 1956. وقد أنهى دراسته الثانوية في مدرسة الزرقاء الثانوية عام 1963 في الزرقاء- الاردن. وقد عين مدرسا في نفس العام في لواء الزرقاء . درس المحاماة في مطلع حياته ، ثم أنهى دراسته الجامعية الأولى متخصصا في اللغويات السامية وآدابها عام 1975 من جامعة بيروت والماجستير في الدراسات الشرقية والحضارات عام 1981 من جامعة القديس يوسف في بيروت. وكان قد رحل الى الكويت عام 1966 طلبا للعمل. وقد عمل في البنك البريطاني للشرق الأوسط ، ثم منسقا للبرامج التلفزيونية للقناة الانجليزية وكلف بتدريس الاسلاميات واللغة العربية كلغة ثانية في مدرسة الكويت الإنجليزية الخاصة وجامعة الكويت بين 1976 و 1982. ثم هاجر طلبا للعلم الى الولايات المتحدة في عام 1982. يعتبر الدكتور يحيى نفسه مستقلا وهو مسلم عربي فلسطيني، وقد كان عضوا فعالا في جمعية العلماء المسلمين وجمعية علماء الاجتماع الأمريكية ، وهو متخصص وخبير في التراث العربي والاسلامي الاجتماعي وتاريخ الأقليات وله خبرة طويلة في تعليم العربية لغير الناطقين بها من عرب وعجم .  وقد حصل من جامعة ولاية ميشيغان على درجة الماجستير والدكتوراه في الادارة التربوية والتخطيط عام 1988 ودكتوراه أخرى في علم النفس الاجتماعي المقارن ودراسة الأديان عام 1991 . وله مقالات تربوية وتخصصية ودراسات دينية مقارنة منشورة عالميا عن التغير الأجتماعي والأديان . وفي حقل التدريس في التعليم العالي درس علم النفس والتربية وعلم الاجتماع وطرق البحث والعلاقات العرقية في كليات وجامعات الولايات المتحدة . وقد أسس معهدا للأبحاث الاسلامية عام 1989 ومعهدا للتراث العربي في عام 1992. كما أسس جريدة الأمة في شيكاغو وكان رئيس تحريرها بين عام 1992-1993. ويعمل مستشارا للتخطيط والتغير الاجتماعي والسلوكي وبحوث المستقبل لعدد من الدول ومراكز الأبحاث . له نظرية لإدارة حل الخلافات الإقليمية والتراثية بعنوان "نظرية سي" ، طورها إلى "علم النظرية الهلالية في إدارة حل الخلافات ". وقد قدمها في مؤتمرات عالمية وإقليمية . ويعتبر الدكتور يحيى من العقول العربية المهاجرة إلى الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية وخبيرا في الشؤون العربية والأسلامية . ويعمل الآن بروفيسورا في العلاقات البشرية ، وقد حاضر في العديد من الجامعات الأمريكية . وظهر في عدة برامج تلفزيونية ، وهو متزوج وله ثلاثة أولاد وبنت واحدة  وله ثمانية أحفاد . ألف ونشر 28 كتابا وأكثر من 250 مقالا في المجتمع والعلاقات العرقية والدين والسياسة وعلم النفس .

 

Author’s CV  (Short Form)

Permanent Address: 1029 Coolidge Road, 48912 Michigan, USA

Email: askdryahya@yahoo.com     Web Page: www.hasanyahya.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

·           Ph.D (1991) Social psychology, Michigan State University,  MICHIGAN, <O:P> </O:P>

·           Ph.D (1988) Educational Administration, Michigan State University, MICHIGAN, USA.<O:P> </O:P>

·           M.A. Islamic Studies, St. Joseph University 1982

·           M.A (1983)   Education, Psychology, Michigan State University, Michigan, USA <O:P></O:P>

·           B. A. Beirut University, Beirut, Lebanon.<O:P> </O:P>Language Arts, 1976.

 

ACADEMIC EXPERIENCE

·           Professor of Comparative Religions, MSU, USA

·           Professor, (Sabatical Leave), Zayed University, Dubai Branch 1998 – 2001

·           Visiting Professor: Easterm Michigan University, 1998

·           Associate Professor: Jackson Community College, 1994 -1998

·           Assistant Professor: Michigan State University, 1989 - 1992

 

ADMINISTRATIVE POSITIONS

·           Department Head, Educational Administration, Ajman University

·           Arab Culture Research Consultant: On Arab and Muslim Culutes

·           Editor-in-Chief: al-Ummah Newspaper, Chicago, Illinois, USA

·           Research Grants Evaluator: IIIT, Washington, D.C.,

·           Regional Manager and PR of Airline business

·           Environmental Supervisor: Michigan State University, Michigan, USA

 

TECHNICAL EXPERIENCE           الخبرة الفنية  

·    Microsoft, Windows, Office,  Exel, Internet, Web page Construction, Distance Learning Solutions.

·    Data analysis. expert, with experience in using SPSS, SPSSpc and SPSSx

·    Assessment and Evaluation Consultant of management projects

·    Fluency in English and Arabic.

Long Form

SPECIAL COMMITTEE PARTICIPATION مشاركة في نشاطات اللجان 

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial; FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-VARIANT: normal; FONT-WEIGHT: normal">University Central Committee for Evaluation, Ajman University, 2001-2003

·         </SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Instructional Development Committee, ZAYED University1998-2001

·         <O:P> </O:P></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Instructional Development Committee, Chair, ZAYED University, 1999-2000.<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Project Evaluator Committee, Developing National Economic Plans, Tirane, 1992-1995.</SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Research Methods Committee, Michigan State, 1984-87.</SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Applied Sociology Committee,  Dept. of Sociology, Michigan State University, 1987-91.<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Complex Organizations Committee, Michigan State 1985-87.<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Comparative Sociology Committee, Michigan State University, 1985-86, <O:P></O:P></SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Times New Roman; FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-VARIANT: normal; FONT-WEIGHT: normal"></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Administration and Curriculum, Department of Education, Michigan State University, </SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">1983.  </SPAN>

 

COMMUNITY SERVICES and ACTIVITIES مشاركات  بالتواصل مع مؤسسات المجتمع

·           2003 Professional  Opinion about Marriage, Durrat alImarat Journal, May 2003,  UAE.

·           2001  Interview about Social and Psychological Issues:, Kul Al-Usra August, 22. UAE.

·           2001 Professional opinion Marriage, Zahrat al-Khaleej,  Dubai, Oct. 2001, UAE

·           2001 Professional opinion Interview  Marriage Fund, Al-Ettihad Daily Newspaper, UAE,  

·           <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">2000 About Marriage and gender,  Zahrat al-Khaleej, Weekly Journal. Dubai, January ,UAE<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

·           1999 Zayed University student activities, Zahrat al-Khaleej,  September, 1999

·           <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">1999 Race Relations and Integration the  Gulf News (English) 30/10/1999, UAE.<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

 

 Activities and Publications:

·         Yahya, A. Qader Yahya,  (1988)Early Islamic Methodology throught al-Bukhari, A Paper Presented at the AMSS,   Annual Meeting, Washington: USAِ

·         …………, (1989) Factors of Life Satisfaction Among Muslim Students in the United States, University of Michigan Publications, , USA

·         ………….,  (1992)Social Change in The Muslim Nations, Comparative Analysis, University  of Michigan Publications. USA

·         ………… , (2001)Blasphemy in History, Internet Publications,

·         2003 Doing Research for Beginners and Professionals, EZUS Publication, Michigan, USA.

·         2003 Personality and Stress, EZUS Publication, Michigan, USA. 

·         2001 Strategies of  Training and Job Rehabilitation, Series of Seminars, 2001-2002, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

·         2000 The Science of Crescentology, (Theory C). A Theory of Conflict Management and Cultural Normalization, (RIISP Publications, Lansing, Michigan, USA.)<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Crescentology and the Nature of Human Behavior. (RIISP Psychology Electronic Publications)<O:P> </O:P>

·         1999 Philosophers of Islam: East and West. RIISP Publications, Lansing Michigan, USA.<O:P>

·         1998 Life-Span Developmental Psychology (English Version)RIISP Publications, Lansing, Michigan, USA. <O:P></O:P>

·         1996 Applied Educational Psychology, RIISP Publications, Lansing, Michigan, USA. (English Version)<O:P> </O:P>

·         1994 Teori C, Albinfo, Albanian Version. <O:P></O:P>

·         1994 Theory C. of Conflict Management: A New Role for Sociologists. English Version, Albinfo, Tirane, Albania. <O:P></O:P>

·         1994 A Brief Applied Sociology, Conceptual Framework.(Arabic Version) <O:P></O:P>

·         1991 Social Change in the Muslim Nations: Comparative Analysis. (University of Michigan Press)<O:P>

·         1988 Factors influence Life Satisfaction of Muslim Organization Members of Lansing Area, Michigan. (University of Michigan Press)</O:P>

 

Published in Proceedings:<O:P> </O:P>

·         1999 Exploring Problem Based Learning Among Zayed University Students, Hong Kong Internet Electronic Publications,

·         7 papers in NCSA, about the Arab women in development, economy and perceptions, Detroit, 1991  <O:P></O:P></SPAN>

1988 Innovation and Work Life Satisfaction: A Case Study. Proceedings of the 2nd Seminar of Islamic Economy, Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS) and the International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT). Herndon, VA, USA, November 18-20 1988.<O:P>

COMMUNITY SERVICES and ACTIVITIES مشاركات  المجتمع

·         2003 Professional  Opinion about Marriage, Durrat alImarat Journal, Published by Women Committee. May 2003, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

·         2001  Interview about Social and Psychological Issues:Family and Computer Change, Kul Al-Usra - No. 410, pp. 180-181, August, 22. UAE.

·         2001 Professional opinion Marriage, Zahrat al-Khaleej, Weekly Journal. Dubai, Oct. 2001, UAE

·         2001 Professional opinion Interview  Marriage Fund, Al-Ettihad Daily Newspaper, April 2, p.7  

·         <O:P> <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">2000 Participant represented ZU at the Technosphere 2000, Hosted by Ajman University for Technology and Sciences, Ajman, UAE, April 16, 2000.

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">2000 About Marriage and gender, (Professional Opinion) Zahrat al-Khaleej, Weekly Journal. Dubai, January 2000, UAE<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

·         1999 Zayed University student activities, Zahrat al-Khaleej, weekly Journal, September, 1999

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">1999 Race Relations and Integration in the UAE, Sent for Publication in the  Gulf News (English) 30/10/1999, UAE.<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

 

PUBLICATIONS

Dr. Yahya Writings and Publications:

حسن عبدالقادر يحيى مناهج القراءة في الصف الثاني في أربع دول عربية: الأردن والسعودية وسوريا وليبيا . مجلة 

                 العلوم الأمريكية الاجتماعية ، عدد 2، واشنطن 1986. (بحث بالإنجليزية)

-------------الرضا والسعادة بين طلبة الجامعة ، مطبعة جامعة ميشيغان ، آن آربر ، 1989. بالإنجليزية

 ----------- ، علم الاجتماع التطبيقي ،  معهد التراث العربي – ميشيغان ، (1991)

 ----------- ، المرشد لكتاب علم الاجتماع التطبيقي ،  معهد التراث العربي – ميشيغان ، (1991)

 ----------- ، التغير الاجتماعي في العالم الإسلامي : دراسة تحليلية ،  مطبعة جامعة ميشيغان ، 1991 بالإنجليزية

 ----------- ، نظرية سي لإدارة حل الخلافات ، إنفو ، تيرانا ، ألبانيا (1994) – بالإنجليزية .  .

----------- ، نظرية سي وطبيعة السلوك الإنساني ، معهد التراث العربي ، ميشيغان ، 2003

----------- ، بناء البحث العلمي للمبتدئين والمحترفين، معهد البحوث RIISP ، ميشيغان  2003

----------، الدراسة للتفوق في التحصيل العلمي ، معهد إيزوس إنترنت 2003 

-----------،  رفيق الباحث في بناء ورقة البحث ، معهد إيزوس إنترنت : 2004

-----------، صراع العقل الواعي واللاواعي والسعادة الشخصية ، معهد إيزوس إنترنت : ‏2004‏

-----------، 16 طريقة من طرق إدارة الفصل الدراسي ، معهد إيزوس إنترنت : 2004

-----------، اختبارات الذكاء IQ / الجزء الأول من 2 إلى 6 سنوات ، ، معهد البحوث النفسية :  RIISPميشيغان: 2004

-----------، اختبارات الذكاءIQ  / الجزء الثاني من 6 إلى 12 سنة ، ، معهد البحوث النفسية :: ميشيغان2004

-----------، اختبارات الذكاء  IQ/ الجزء الثالث من 12 إلى 24 سنة ، معهد البحوث النفسية RIISP: ميشيغان: 2004

---------- ، قياسات نفسية واجتماعية ، مطبوعات إيزوس إنترنت ، 2004 

-----------، فياس وكسلر بالفيو للمراهقين والبالغين ، مطبوعات إيزوس إنترنت ، 2004

-----------، فياس التكيف الجسدي والنفسي والاجتماعي لعير القادرين عقليا ، مطبوعات إيزوس إنترنت ، 2004

-----------، مهارات المعلم المبدع ، مطبوعات إيزوس إنترنت ، 2004

-----------، مهارات حياتية للمراهقين وطلاب المدارس ، مطبوعات إيزوس إنترنت ، 2004 

PUBLISHED BOOKS for the author:

In English:

-          Crescentology, Theory C. of Conflict Management- English

-          The Beast In Me, America- English

-          Poetry Diwan-English

-          Moon Flowers – English

-          Personality and Stress Management, Sociotherapy - English

-          Arab Palestinians and Jews: Sociological Approach English

-          Legal Adultery: Sexuality and World Cultures, English

 

In Arabic:

 

-          Arab and Islamic Ethics- Bilingual التعاليم الأخلاقية العربية والإسلامية  

-          55 Stories 4 Kids – 1st edition, Arabic 55 قصة قصيرة للأطفال بالعربية 

-          Therapy Cases: Mental and Physycal Disabilities حالات علاجية لغير القادرين

-          Adwa’ ala alFikr al-Gharbi –Arabic أضواء على الفكر الغربي

-          55 Stories 4 Kids – 2nd  edition, Arabic قصص للأطفال

-          28 Arabic Short Stories – Arabic 28 قصة قصيرة  بالعربية

-          Ilm I Ejtima’ al-Tatbeeqi, Arabic علم الإجتماع التطبيقي

-          Arabic IQ Test Measurements- Arabicقياسات الذكاء بالعربية 

-          Tales From America – Arabic حكايات من أمريكا بالعربية

-          Research Methods - Arabic          مناهج البحث العلمي بالعربية

-          Theory C, al-Nathariyyah al-Qamariyyah – Arabic نظرية سي القمرية بالعربية

-          Diwan Bahr-l-Amani – Arabic Poetryديوان بحر الأماني بالعربية 

-          Diwan al-Qadar – Arabic Poetry ديوان القدر بالعربية

-          Lawlaki, Arabic Poetry, ديوان لولاك شعر بالعربية   

-          Maqalat On Social Development – Arabic مقالات في التنمية بالعربية

-          Zawjat lil-Bay’ زوجات للبيع – مجموعة قصصية

-          Zawjatu al-Sultan, Short Arabic Stories, زوجة السلظان مجموعة قصصية بالعربية 

-          2000 Bayt min al-Shi’r alArabi 2000 بيت من عيون الشعر العربي

-          Al-Zawaj wal-Jinse ffil-Alamالزواج والجنس في العالم

 

Articles In English:

Articles: (English (  أوراق بحثية بالإنجليزية :

·         2005-2009 200 plus articles on amazines, articlesbase, and wfol.tv. On politics, sociology, psychology, and literature (short stories and poetry).

·         2003 Attitudes toward Technology Among University students. Ajman University, Abu Dhabi (Sent for publication)

·         1999 Exploring Problem-Based Learning Among Zayed University Students, Hong Kong, Hard and Internet Publication. (Abstract)<O:P> </O:P>

·         1996 Opinions Concerning Socio-political Issues in a Newly Democratic Albania, East-West Review, Summer, 1996, Chicago, IL. U.S.A<O:P> </O:P>

·         1993 'Ilm and Ma’rifah- two sections. (Abstract Knowledge and Practical Science), ALUMMAH, no 9. & no. 10. Feb. and March 1993, Chicago.<O:P> </O:P>

·         1993 Defining the Muslim World, three parts. ALUMMAH, nos. 11, 12, 13, April, May, and June, 1993, Chicago, IL. <O:P></O:P>

·         1993 Psychology of Muslims in North America, . ALUMMAH, nos. 12, May, 1993, Chicago, IL. <O:P></O:P>

·         1992 Arab and American Cultures. AL-UMMAH, Psychology Section, no. 5, p. 1, October 1992, Chicago.<O:P> </O:P>

·         1992 Comparative Analysis of Social Change in the Muslim Nations., The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, (AJISS) Vol.9 no.4, p.595, Winter 1992<O:P> </O:P>

·         1991 Race and Ethnic Relations Conflict in the United States: Application of Theory C. Sociological Abstract. <O:P></O:P>

·         1991 Population Density and Economic Growth in the Middle East: Comparative Analysis. Sociological Abstract.<O:P> </O:P>

·         1991 Measurement of Qualitative Social Phenomenon: Domains of Life Satisfaction Among University Students. Sociological Abstract. <O:P></O:P>

·         1991 Preliminary Findings of Assimilation Among Immigrants from the Middle East. Sociological Abstract. <O:P></O:P>

·         1991 Women’s Participation in the Labor Force as determinant of Infant Mortality: A Path Analysis Model. Sociological Abstract.<O:P> </O:P>

·         1991 Principles of Islamic Sociology: The Experience of Muslim Social Scientists in the United States. Sociological Abstract.<O:P> </O:P>

·         1991 Theory C. of Conflict Management. Sociological Abstract.<O:P> </O:P>

·         1989 Age and Life Satisfaction Among Muslims in the United States. A Paper was presented at the North Central Sociological Association (NCSA) Annual Meeting, April 13-16, 1989. Akron, Ohio, USA. Sociological Abstract.<O:P>

·         1988 Factors Influencing the Satisfaction of Muslim Organization Members in the Greater Lansing, Michigan, Area. Dissertation Abstract International,Vol. 49 November 1988.

·         Factors Influence the Life Satisfaction of Muslim Organization Members in a University Town in the United States (Lansing, MI). Journal Institute Muslim Minority Affairs (JIMMA), London: Vol. IX, 2, July 1988. <O:P></O:P>

·         Secularization and Tradition in Four Arab Countries: Cross Nations Content Analysis of Reading Textbooks in Jordan, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, (AJISS), Vol. II, December 1986, Also Published in Sociological Abstract, Vol. 35, no. 3, December.<O:P> </O:P>

CONFERENCE PARTICIPATION مشاركة في مؤتمرات متخصصة          

·         Exploring Problem-Based Learning among Zayed University Students, Dubai Campus. A paper presented at the International Conference on Problem-Based Learning, 6 – 12, December, 1999, Sponsored by Hong Kong University, Hong Kong.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Early Islamic Methodology of Collecting Hadith through Al-Bukhari, A paper to be presented at the Association of Muslim Social Scientists, Indiana, USA.<O:P>

·         Analysis of Albanian Opinions, East-West University, Chicago, August 1995.

·         Applied Social Science in the 1990s: A Model for Problems and Solutions.. A Paper Presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the Association of Social Scientists (AMSS), Detroit: Oct. 25-27. <O:P></O:P>

·         Race and Ethnic Relations Conflict in the United States: Application of Theory C.  A Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of North Central Sociological Association (NCSA), April 25-28, 1991. Dearborn, Michigan.

·         Population Density and Economic Growth in the Middle East: A Comparative Analysis. A Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of North Central Sociological Association (NCSA), April 25-28, 1991. Dearborn, Michigan.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Measurement of Qualitative Social Phenomenon: Domains of Life Satisfaction Among University Students.  A Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of North Central Sociological Association (NCSA), April 25-28, 1991. Dearborn, Michigan.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Preliminary Findings of Assimilation Among Immigrants from the Middle East.  A Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of North Central Sociological Association (NCSA), April 25-28, 1991. Dearborn, Michigan.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Women's Participation in the Labor Force as Determinant of Infant Mortality in Traditional Societies. A Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of North Central Sociological Association (NCSA), April 25-28, 1991. Dearborn, Michigan.

·         Principles of Islamic Sociology: The Experience of Muslim Social Scientist in the United States.  A Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of North Central Sociological Association (NCSA), April 25-28, 1991. Dearborn, Michigan.

·         Theory C. of Conflict Management:  A Paper Presented at the Joint Annual Meeting of North Central Sociological Association (NCSA) and Southern Sociological Association (SSS), Louisville, Kentucky, March 22-25, 1990.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Age and Life Satisfaction Among Muslims in the United States> A Paper Presented at the  A Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of North Central Sociological Association (NCSA), April 13-16 1989.

·         Innovation and Work Life Satisfaction: A Case Study. A Paper Presented at the Economic Discipline of the (AMSS),  Herndon, VA, USA, Nov.18-20, 1988. <O:P></O:P>

·         Muslim Organization Members and Life Satisfaction. A Paper Presented at the 17th Annual Conference of the (AMSS),  October 28-30, 1988, Ames, IOWA.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Seminar: Reconstruction of Islamic Thought in the Discipline of Sociology. A Lecture Presented upon Invitation from the (IIIT), Herndon, VA, USA, October 17-19, 1988.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Islamization of Knowledge: The Discipline of Sociology. Presented at the 16th Annual Conference of the (AMSS), Plainfield, Indiana, USA, October, 8-11, 1987.<O:P> </O:P>

·         The Development of Early Islamic Methodology: A Study of Hadith Literature Through al-Bukhari. Presented at the 15th Annual Conference of the (AMSS), Plainfield, Indiana, USA,  October 15-17, 1986.<O:P>

Media and TV Activities:

<SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">TV Program Participation at Dubai TV, (English)

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Open Doors, Open minds, Channel 33, Dubai TV, Feb. 23, 2000<SPAN style="mso-tab-count: 1">   </SPAN><O:P></O:P></SPAN>

·         Islamic Issues, one hour live program, Dubai TV, (bilingual) October, 1999.<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> Community and School Relations ( A lecture presented at al-Ain model elementary School) 1999

·         I ÷IIslamic Issues, one hour live program, Dubai TV, (bilingual) December 1999.<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

<SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">TV Program Participation at Abu Dhabi TV, (Arabic)

·         Al-Multaqa الملتقى ,  Specialist Interview on Toys and the family, Emirates  Channel, March 2003.

·         Family Program, Hayatuna (Our Life) February 2002

·         Family Program, Hayatuna (Our Life)  March 2001

·         Family Program, Hayatuna, (Our Life) May 2000

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Special Interview, AL-ASWAQ , July 18,1994, NO 316,VOL 3, P. 8. Amman, 1994.<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Television Talks: Children Behavior and Social Change, Washington,  D.C.TV, 1992.

·         <O:P> </O:P></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Mediator: Toward Global Islamic Economy: A Conference Sponsored by The ICPI, Detroit,, Nov.. 29-Dec.1, 1992. (Available on Video).

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">SESSION ORGANIZER: Middle East Week, Lansing Community College Diversity Week Celebration, Lansing Community College, Lansing, Michigan. October 16, 1991. (The lectures were  showed on  LCC TV Channel and Public Broadcasting.

<SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Lectures:

·         Lecture for Women : Absenteeism by choice, Islamic Institute, al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, 17/3/2003. 

·         Lecture for Parents and Teachers: Gifted Students Measurement and Treatment in a School Setting, al-Ain, april 2003.

·         Lecture: Global Measurement and Evaluation in Education, Ajman University, 13/10/2002

·         </O:P><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Lecture: Women’s Changing Roles and Challenges. Women Conference, March 20-21, 2000, Dubai.<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Lecture: The Persian Gulf Conflict: History, Geography, Culture, and Security. Michigan State University, Feb. 9, 1991<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Lecture: Kuwait Social Progress and Change: A Presentation of Research on Social Change in the Muslim Nations. Michigan State University, January 9, 1991.<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Lecture: Islamic Culture and Social Change: Presented at the Islamic Center. Washington, D.C., October 15. 1989.<O:P>  

Professional Workshops:

·         WORKSHOP: Instruction and Design, el-Ain Model School Teachers, el-Ain, UAE, 1998</SPAN>

·         <SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: Arial">WORKSHOP  for Teachers In the Saudi Academy Titled: Teaching-Learning Problems and Solutions: A Seminar for 110 Teachers. October 9, 1989, Alexandria,  VA, USA.<O:P> </O:P></SPAN>

 

Professional Publications (In Arabic) <O:P></O:P>

Arabic Articles Published In 2002

·         2002 Al-Aamil al-Wirathi wa Maradh al-Tawahhud,  العامل الوراثي والتوحد  Al-Khaleej ewspaper (Health and Medicine Issue), No. 168, February 2002, pp. 32-35,

·         2000 Arab Culture and Globalization التراث العربي والعولمة , al-khaleej Newspaper, No. 7650, 29/4/2000, p. 18<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Pulses and Notes about the Study of Societies, “Nabadhat and Ishkaliyyat fe Dirasat al-Mujtama’t”, نبضات وإشكاليات في دراسة المجتمعات  al-Khaleej, Nr. 7640 , April 19, 2000, Dubai-UAE (p. 14).<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 No Fear from Globalization for Arabs, “La khawfa ala al-Arab min al-Awlama   لاخوف على العرب من العولمة , al-Khaleej, Nr. 7627 , April 7, 2000, Dubai-UAE (p. 12).<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Self-Struggle and Conspiracy Theory  صراع النفس ونظرية المؤامرة , al-Nahdha, Nr. 951, January 4, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Development and Scientific Research in Developing Countries  البحوث والتنمية في الدول النامية , al-Nahdha, Nr. 854, Feb. 1, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Human Nature in the Muslim Culture  الطبيعة البشرية في التراث الإسلامي , al-Nahdha, Nr. 955, February 8, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 About Civilizations  حول الحضارات , al-Nahdha, Nr. 956, February, 15, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Science: Theory and Practice  العلم بين النظرية والتطبيق , al-Nahdha, Nr. 957, February 22, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Principles of Literature Analysis: Emotions, Imaginations, Meanings and Style  عناصر النقد الأدبي , al-Nahdha, Nr. 958, February 29, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 No Fear from Globalization for Arabs,  لاخوف على العرب من العولمة “La khawfa ala al-Arab min al-Awlama, al-Nahdha, Nr. 959 , March 7, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Social Reality/1 الواقع الاجتماعي /1, al-Nahdha, Nr. 961, March 28, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Social Reality/2 الواقع الاجتماعي/2, al-Nahdha, Nr. 962, April 4, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Social Reality/3 الواقع الاجتماعي/3, al-Nahdha, Nr. 963, April 11, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Social Reality/4 الواقع الاجتماعي /4, al-Nahdha, Nr. 964, April 18, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         2000 Social Reality/5 الواقع الاجتماعي /5, al-Nahdha, Nr. 965, April 25, 2000, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

1999 Published Articles

·         Women In Modern Society  المرأة في المجتمع المعاصر , Al-Bayan, Newspaper, March 27, 1999.<O:P> </O:P>

·         About Culture, حول التراث  , al-Nahdha, Nr.915, April, 13, 1999.<O:P> </O:P>

·         About Curriculum حول المناهج , Al-Bayan, Newspaper, March 12, 1999.<O:P> </O:P>

·         About Curriculum حول المناهج  , al-Nahdha, Nr.913, March 23, 1999.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Teachers in a Changing Age المدرسون في عصر التغير , al-Nahdha, Nr. 910, March 3, 1999.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Education between Ideals and reality التربية بين الواقعية  والمثالية , al-Nahdha, Nr.912, March 16, 1999.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Necessity of Education for Life أهمية التعليم المستمر , , al-Nahdha, Nr. 923, June 8, 1999. <O:P></O:P>

·         Traditional and Modern Instructional Supervision التوجيه التربوي بين التقليد والأصالة , al-Nahdha, March 30, 1999.<O:P> </O:P>

·         What After the year 2000? ما بعد عام 2000 al-Nahdha, Nr.950, Dec. 28, 1999.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Education Policy in the Arab Nations سياسات التربية في العالم العربي , al-Nahdha, weekly Journal.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Introduction to World Civilization مقدمة في حضارات الأمم , al-Nahdha, Nr.942, Oct. 19, 1999. <O:P></O:P>

·         Modern Administration and developing Countries الإدارة العصرية في الدول النامية , al-Nahdha, Nov. 2, 1999, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Computer and Ethics الكمبيوتر والأخلاق , al-Nahdha, Nr.947, Nov. 20, 1999.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Technology Today التكنولوجيا المعاصرة , al-Nahdha, Nr 948, Dec. 14, 1999, Oman.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Goals of Nations in Education أهداف الأمم التربوية , al-Nahdha, Nr. 940, Oct. 5, 1999 <O:P></O:P>

·         Philosophy of Curriculum in the Arabic Nations فلسفة المناهج في الدول العربية , al-Nahdha, Nr. 949, Dec. 21, 1999<O:P> </O:P>

·         Happiness السعادة , al-Nahdha, Nr. 939, Sept. 28, 1999.<O:P> </O:P>

1993 Professional Articles:

·         Attarbayna al ‘Irqi wa Thaka  التربية العرقية والذكاء, (Education between Race and Smartness), AL-UMMAH, no. 8, p. 3, January 1993, Chicago.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Nahwa Tasawwor Limustaqbal al-Arab wal- Yahood fi Falsteen نحو تصور لمستقبل العالم العربي ., (Toward a Future Solution between Arabs and Jews in Palestine), AL-UMMAH, p.1, Jan.1993, Chicago.<O:P> </O:P>

·         'Usus Dirasat al Mustaqbal al-Arabi أسس دراسة المستقبل العربي , (Principles of Future Study), AL-UMMAH, no. 9, p. 3, February 1993, Chicago.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Manzilat al-Mar’ah ti al-Mujtama منزلة المرأة في المجتمعات, (Women’ Position in Society)s AL-UMMAH, no. 10 , p. 3, March 1993, Chicago.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Turoq al-Ma’rifa,  طرق المعرفة (Methods of Knowledge), AL-UMMAH, no. 11 , p. 3, April 1993, Chicago.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Mahmoud and Rabiha, محمود وربيحة  (Short Story), AL-UMMAH, no.12, p.11, May 1993, Chicago. <O:P></O:P>

·         Principles of Leadership Theories أسس الإدارة الحديثة , AL-UMMAH, no.12, p.3, May 1993, Chicago.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Quantitative Method and Statistics. الدراسات الكمية والإحصاء , AL-UMMAH, no. 13, p.3, May 1993, Chicago.<O:P> </O:P>

 

1992 Professional Articles:

·         Educational Leadership الإدارة التربوية , AL-UMMAH, no.. 14, p.5, June 1993, Chicago. <O:P></O:P>

·         Rules of Analysis of Contemporary Arab World. قواعد تحليل العالم العربي المعاصر , AL-UMMAH, no. 2. p.3, July/August 1992, Chicago, and AL-WATAN, no. 6. p.7 August 1992, Washington, D.C.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Human Roles in Life أدوار الإنسان في الحياة , AL-UMMAH, no. 4. p.3, Sept/October 1992, Chicago.<O:P> </O:P>

·         Education between Theory and Practice التربية بين النظرية والتطبيق , ALUMMAH, no. 5, p. 3, October 1992, Chicago. <O:P></O:P>

 

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PART THREE

200 Plus ARTICLES PUBLISHED ON ARTICLESBASE.COM OR AMAZINES.COM OR ON WFOL.TV

 

hasan yahya

 

 

بعض المقالات بالعربية للأديب والشاعر والكاتب المهجري

بروفيسور د. حسن عبدالقادر يحيى - ميشيغان

أرسلت للنشر في الجرائد والصحف في الوطن العربي

منشورة في صفحة الحكواتي الناضجة

المقال: بين الدين والعلم: مصالحة مع داروين

منذ أن بدأ داروين الحديث عن نظريته الشهيرة حول تطور الإنسان حتى انقسم العالم والعلماء في الشرق والغرب والشمال والجنوب بين فريقين أو أكثر ، أحدهما مع تمجيد وتطبيق النظرية التطورية التي نادى بها ، بينما الفريق الآخر الذي وقف ضدها وضد المنادين بها كفكرة ترفض نظرية الخلق التي بدأت بآدم وحواء. ويتصف الفريق الأول بالمنطق والعقل والابتكار البشري في دراسة التطور البشري ، بينما يمثل الفريق الثاني أصحاب الديانات التي تنادي بنظرية الخلق . ولعل هناك فريق لا يتصف بالتصدي للنظرية الداروينية ولا يتصدى للنظرية الخلقية السماوية ، فبقي متفرجا أو تابعا لنظرية الخلق مرة وتابعا لنظرية التطور مرات أخرى .

وفي الولايات المتحدة كأي بلد آخر تقاسمته مجموعات عدة ، أحدها يدافع عن الدين ويهاجم الداروينية ، وثانيها يدافع عن الداروينية بل ويتبناها في الحكم والفصل بين الناس والشعوب وفي نفس الوقت يهاجم نظرية الخلق الدينية كما يهاجم الأديان كلها . أما الفريق المتفرج من غير العلماء فليس يعنينا كثيرا في هذه المقالة وإن كانت أهميته لا تقل عن أهمية الفريقين ، نظرا لأعدادهم في الولايات المتحدة وباقي دول العالم .

أما الفريق الذي يهمنا هنا هو فريق العلماء الذي لا ينتمي لأحد الفريقين فما يهم العلماء هو البحث في أسباب ظهور تلك النظرية ومدى تأثيرها على الشعوب والأفراد. لذا فإن موقف العلماء يتميز عن المهاجمين والمدافعين الرافضين للنظرية الداروينية على حد سواء.

وأرى أن الحاجة الملحة في الولايات المتحدة كانت وما تزال هي الحاجة لجعل الولايات المتحدة قوية الإيمان بدينها إلى جانب قوتها في الأبحاث العلمية والإبداعية . لذا فقد أصبح التحدي يدفع العلماء للتواؤم بين الدين والعلم أي بين نظريتي الخلق والتطور . ومع مرور الأيام منذ أوقات داروين والمؤمنون بنظريته ، المدافعون عنها يتناقصون يوما بعد يوم. فقد أثبتت البحوث الأخيرة أن نسبة الأمريكان الذين يقبلون بمبدأ داروين أصبح حوالي أربعين بالمائة علما أنه كان خمسة وأربعين في المائة قبل ثلاثين عاما .

ولم يدر في خلد الأمريكان أن كلا من النظريتين : نظرية الخلق الإلهي التي تعتمد على وجود الآلهة ، ونظرية التطور التي نادى بها داروين ، تجيب على أسئلة مختلفة تماما . ويحاول البعض التركيز على اتحاد النظريتين (الخلق والتطور)، بينما الفرق واضح في الزمان والمكان ، حيث أن بدء الخليقة يختلف عن بدء خلق آدم وحواء على الأرض، فبينما تقدر النظرية الخلقية لآدم وحواء حسب الكتب المقدسة بما لا يزيد عن ستة آلاف سنة ، وقد تصل حسب كتب التاريخ إلى عشرة آلاف سنة على أبعد تقدير ، تقوم نظرية التطور بتقدير خلق العالم بما فيه من حيوانات متوحشة كالديناصورات مثلا إلى أكثر من أربعمائة مليون سنة ، وهذا الاختلاف يقلل من النظريتين لعدم إثبات أي منهما والتأكد من حقيقتهما علميا .

وفي رأيي المتواضع أن بقاء النظريتين منفصلتين أفضل من رفضهما معا أو رفض أحدهما باتباع الأخرى . فكل نظرية كما سبق أن قلنا تفسر مسألة مختلفة عن تفسير النظرية الأخرى . فمثلا، النظرية الداروينية تفسر "كيف" حصل الخلق بينما نظرية الخلق تفسر أسئلة حول "لماذا" تم الخلق للبشرية . ، لأن الدين يفسر لماذا خلق البشر والعلم يفسر كيف تطورت الحياة على الأرض. وهذا فرق واضح بين العلم وبين الدين أو بين نظرية التطور ونظرية الخلق ، وحين أقرأ القرآن أو الإنجيل أو التوراة لا أنظر إلى المعلومات العلمية ، مع أن فيها ما يستعي النظر علميا ، خاصة فيما يتعلق بكيفية بناء الحياة البشرية ، وقصص الأولين من الأقوام البائدة التي قطنت الأرض . ولكني أقرأ التفسيرات المبنية على أساس الإيمان حول لماذا خلق الإنسان على هذه الأرض وما هي وظيفتنا كعلماء تجاهه .  فالدين في كثير من التساؤلات يعطي معاني للأسئلة التي تدور في أذهان القراء للكتب المقدسة ، بينما يمتاز العلم باكتشاف آليات العالم الذي نعيش فيه .

وتورد قصص الكتب المقدسة الرسمية وغير الرسمية قصصا تكاد تكون متشابهة في معنى قضية الخلق ، أكثر من الاهتمام بأسئلة ما خلف عملية الخلق . وكلا من العلم والدين يعطينا إجابات على أسئلة مختلفة مما يزيد معلوماتنا في اتجاهين متضادين ولكنهما لا يتصارعان إلى درجة القطيعة .

ويالنسبة للعلم فإنه لا يرى أن الله خلف تصرف كل حيوان أو نبات أو إنسان ، ولكنه يرى أو يحاول إيجاد أجوبة لأسئلته عن طريق التجربة والملاحظة ، وإيراد البراهين وإعادة تلك التجارب عدة مرات حتى يصل إلى الحقيقة فيما يبحث ، وليس وجود الله أو عدم وجوده ضمن حدود العلم ليصل إلى حقيقة قاطعة خارج نطاق الإيمان والعقيدة التي تقطع بذلك الأمر.

أما نظرية التطور الداروينية ، حقيقة ، فهي تشكل أسس البيولوجيا الحديثة ، وقد أثبتت فعاليتها بأنها صحيحة علميا (الجانب البيولوجي التطوري هو ما أقصده هنا) لا النظرية الخلقية للإنسان . فمن خلال الأبحاث وإعادة الأبحاث العلمية نفسها أعطت العلماء أجوبة محددة حول آليات تطور الحياة البشرية ولكن الحقائق التي تم التوصل إليها لم تفسر معنى خلق الإنسان ولماذا خلق على هذه الأرض.

ومن المعقول أن هذه الأجوبة بالتأكيد لا تتعني أن العلم والدين متنافران أو أنهما يتجهان إلى خلاف لا محالة! ويرى بعض العلماء - والكاتب منهم - أنه لا تضارب بين ما تنادي به الأديان وما يتم اكتشافه حول جينات البشر. حيث إن فهم سؤال "كيف خلق الإنسان؟" لا ينفي فهم سؤال: "لماذا خلق الإنسان؟" فخلق الإنسان شيء ، ومن وراء خلقه شيء آخر. والعلم يهتم بخلق الإنسان وتطوره بعد الخلق ، دون فلسفات البحث فيمن خلق الكون كله بما فيه من الإنسان والنبات والحيوان ، بعد أن أصبح الكون وخاصة الأرض تربة وبيئة صالحة أولا ليكون مناسبا لعيش الإنسان .

وللكلمات أهميتها في الكتب المقدسة ، فبالكلمة تم خلق آدم ، أبو البشر ، ففي الإسلام هناك كلمتان مهمتان حول الخلق والخليقة وهم كلمتا "كن فيكون" ومعناهما في العربية واضح حول الخالق وما خلق ، أمر واستجابة لأمر . فكلمة "كن" هي الأمر الإلهي لوجود شيء لم يكن موجودا من قبل على شاكلته ، وكلمة "يكون" هي الخلق بعد الأمر الإلهي . ، ولولا قوة الله الخالق وإرادته لما تم الخلق ، ولكن إذا شاء أمر فكان ما أمر حقيقة واقعة ، وفي الإنجيل (القجيم والجديد) وضوح الكلمة شاهد على ذلك. حيث رود عن الله قوله : "ليكن الضياء ، فكان ضياء" ، وفي أناجيل أخرى على لسان جون يقول الله: "الكلمة أصبحت لحما غعاشت بيننا" ، كعيسى عليه السلام . وقد يتفق أو لا يتفق المهتمون بالأديان والعوام من البشر التابعين لتلك الأديان إلا أن هناك شبه اتفاق حول الكلمة نفسها "كن" لأن الله أمر فكان ما أمر أمرا واقعا .

مما سبق يمكن القول أن هناك صلة بين الدين والعلم ، فالعلم يهتم بالأشياء بينما الدين يهتم بكنه الأشياء كالكلمات. وحين يباشر العلماء أبحاثهم وتجاربهم العلمية فهم يقيسون ملامح الأشياء المادية من طول وعرض وارتفاع ووزن ، ولا توجد كلمات لتغيير الواقع للأشياء ، ولكن المنادين بالأديان يستعملون الكلمات ليكرسوا مفهوما لخلق معنى جديد للفهم البشري وتجاربه من خلال الإيمان والعقائد، وليس هناك أسمى من الكلمات الدينية حين تستعمل بشكل جيد خاصة في أمور تتعلق بجدود الفهم الإنساني المحدود مكانا وزمانا وعلما ، وقد كان للكلمات المنطوقة من أصحاب الأديان والأنبياء أثر كبير في تغيير السلوك الإنساني وإعادة صياغة التاريخ . فالحروب الإسلامية الأولى اعتمدت على بضع كلمات ولكنها قلبت موازين الأرض وموازين البشر ، وهذه الكلمات هي: "لا إله إلا الله" وفي المسيحية جعلت الحروب الصليبية تبدأ ولا تنتهي ، وكان لكلمات الديمقراطية والاشتراكية والنازية والمساواة أثر في تغيير مجرى التاريخ ، وأخرها كان 11 سبتمبر الذي غير كثيرا من المفاهيم حقا أو باطلاز وكلمات مارتن لوثر كنغ ومالكولم إكس كان لها أبعد الأثر في تغيير مسار التار وكلمة أخيرة قبل ختام هذا المقال ، فإن الدعوة إلى تضافر الجهود لتوحيد النظريتين: نظرية الخلق ونظرية التطور، أمر يفيد البشرية ، ويحدد مجالات كل منهما فيما وجدت له أو داعية إليه ، بمعنى أن للدين مجال في الحياة البشرية لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه ، وفي النظرية التطورية مجال أيضا لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه وهو البحث والتقصي حول السلوك الإنساني وجيناته البيولوجية ، وكلاهما لا يجوز الاستغناء عنهما ، فالأول مجال روحي سماوي ، والثاني مجال مادي وجودي ، ولا نريد النظر في سلبيات كل منحى منهما على حساب الآخر ، فقد خلق الله الدماغ في الإنسان وشرفه على باقي المخلوقات ، لا ليضعه معلقا في سلة تتدلى من السقف للتعبد بها ، وإنما لاستعمال العقل فيما يفيد ويزيدنا معرفة لما يكتشف من علوم الله (غير المحدودة) التي لن يصل إليها البشر ولا البشرية حتى يوم القيامة ، حيث إنه لكل شيء يخص البشر حدود لا يستطيعون تعديها .

والتاريخ في كل مراحله ، أثبت أن نظرية داروين التي تطورت فيما بعد إلى "البقاء للأصلح" الذي تبناه هيربرت سبنسر المؤيد بدون تحفظ لنظرية داروين ، أنها فشلت تاريخيا فشلا ذريعا . فما زال الصالح والأقل صلاحا يعيشان جنبا إلى جنب ، لأن الخير والشر يتلازمان ولا يوجد أحدهما إلا بوجود الآخر ، عبر التاريخ وحتى يومنا هذا وحتى إلى يوم يبعثون . ويبقى الدين في هذه الحالة هو العامل الوحيد الذي يقلم أظفار الشر ويجعل للخير طريقا فيوجه المصلحة لحب الآخرين والتعايش معهم لا استعبادهم والسيطرة عليهم ، لان ذلك متناوب عليه بين الشعوب المتعاقبة ، وفي العربية نقول: "الأيام دول" أي يوم لك ويوم عليك ، أو تكون سيدا يوما ويوما آخر تكون دون سيادة وهذا ما يثبت أن البقاء ليس للأصلح وإنما البقاء للجميع من البشر إلى أجل مسمى ، أما البقاء السرمدي فهو ليس صفة من صفات البشر.

نبذة حول الكاتب :

ولد الدكتور يحيى عام 1944 ودرس في مدارس فلسطين والأردن وجامعات لبنان والولايات المتحدة ، فقد نال درجة البكالوريوس في الآداب 1976، والماجستير (1983) والدكتوراة الأولى في الإدارة التربوية من جامعة ميشيغان (1988) والدكتوراة الثانية في علم الاجتماع المقارن من نفس الجامعة عام (1991).

وله مؤلفات تفوق العشرين كتابا باللغتين العربية والانجليزية ، في مجالات التربية وعلوم النفس والاجتماع والسياسة ، وله أربعة دواوين شعرية وثلاث مجموعات قصصية ، ويعمل بروفيسورا لعلم الاجتماع في جامعة ميشيغان. وهو رئيس الاتحاد العالمي للكتاب العرب والمسلمين في الولايات المتحدة .

 

 

مقال بالعربية

إشكاليات الحرية وروح القانون عند عرب اليوم

د. حسن عبدالقادر يحيى

 

تعتبر أزمة الحرية في المجتمعات التقليدية من أهم المواضيع الجدلية في الحياة الثقافية العربية اليوم . والأهم من ذلك، أن الخلاف الكبير بين الشرق والغرب  يدور جزء غير يسير منها حول إشكالية الحرية، ففي الغرب يعتبر الحل الإسلامي في جميع صوره وتنويعاته، معاد للحرية. مما يجعل الخلاف يأخذ أبعاداً مهمة بناء على ذلك التصور . خاصة عندما يصور البعض التغريب بوصفه سبيلاً يحتذى لممارسة الحرية، مما يشكل تهديدا للتراث العربي والإسلامي بوصفه عائقاً أمام ممارسة الحرية. وهذا التصور ، يفجر قضيةالحرية مقابل ما يسمى بالقهر الذي يوصف به التراث العربي والإسلامي لتسهيل الحرية بقالب غربي.

وبالنظر في الأمر فإن للحضارة الغربية دلالات متعددة تؤثر سلبا أو إيجابا في أي حضارة خارج وعبر الحدود ، بما فيها الحدود العربية  ، فهي ممارسة الفرد لحريته بعيدا عن الجماعة حسب  القوانين التي تسنها الدولة الفدرالية أو المحلية ، حيث إن لكل دولة الحق في وضع قوانينها بما يتناسب مع سكانها . بينما يرى الناس الحرية في العالم العربي ممارسة الجماعة للحرية بعيدا عن الفرد. ولكن الحرية في الغرب تمارس ضمن حدود مرسومة وليس حرية إباحية تقف ضد تلك الحدود أو القوانين . والناظر إلى العرب اليوم كحكومات وشعوب في الوقت الراهن ، لا يفقد الحكم على وصف العرب بأنهم منقسمون كأنظمة سياسية إلى فريقين متصادمين وكلاهما يبحث عن الحرية فلا يجدها ، وكلا الفريقين يقيس الحرية  بمقاييس مفصلة لهذه الأنظمة .  مما يصعب على المتنورين والعقلاء والنابهين من أبناء هذه الأنظمة البت والفعالية في بسط الحرية دون عقاب من الفريقين . وهذين الفريقين هما :  فريق فيه الشعوب عالة على حكوماتها ، وفريق فيه الحكومات عالة على شعوبها. 

وتضيع الحرية عند كل فريق منهما ، وتظهر إشكاليات لا بد من بيانها والخوض فيها ، لإصلاح ما فسد في كل منهما ، وهذا ينطبق على العالم العربي بكل نظمه السياسية . والمشكلة الرئيسية كما أراها لا تقبع في المقدس ولا في رفضه ، وإنما أصفها بشارع تم فتحه منذ القدم تعبره الأمم فزادت فيه الحفر الواسعة والمتعددة حتى أسبح بلا لون ولا استقامة ولا صلاحية للسي فيه مشيا أو في عربة على عجلات ، ولم يقم أحد بإصلاحه ، ولا بتنويره ولا برقعه ، فزادت الإشكاليات التي لا بد من النظر فيها وفهمها من أجل الحيلولة دون النوم عليها أو التعذر بعدم جدوى حلولها أو عدم مناسبتها لمجال الحرية . وهذه الإشكاليات هي :

الإشكالية الأولى في المجتمعات التقليدية . لذا فإن تعريف الحرية وفهم معناها يختلف في بلاد العرب عن معناها في بلاد الغرب. فالحرية المقدسة حسب المقدس من الأديان ليست مفهومة ولا مطبقة لا شرعا ولا قانونا في أكثر الأحيان، ويعتقد البعض أن الغرب وفهمه للحرية يريد إرغامنا على اتباعها ، ونحن (كعرب) لم نصل بعد إلى مستوى تطبيقها عبر القوانين لا الشرعية ولا الوضعية .   

والإشكالية الثانية نابعة من الإشكالية الأولى وهي الظن بأن الحرية في الغرب حرية مطلقة ، وأنها إباحية حتى ضد القوانين التي تتغير كلما ثار عليها الناس فألغوها وجاؤا بتغديل لها أو تغييرها نهائيا ، وهذه الإشكالية لا تخلو من الغموض ، حيث إن الجزء الأول غير صحيح فالحرية مقيدة حسب القوانين المرعية في دل دولة ، أما الجزء الثاني من الإشكالية ، وهي حرية التفيير أو التعديل فهي حقيقة يمارسها المواطن في حدود القانون ، وتوضع المشكلة غير المرضي عنها فتقدم في مشروع قانون للموافقة على التعديل أو التغيير من قبل المواطنين . وهذ الشق من الإشكالية حق من حقوق المواطنين ووجه من وجوه الحرية الذي لم يفهم من العرب معتقدين أن الحرية في الغرب مطلقة ، وبناء عليه لا يجوز تعديل القوانين تمثيلا لحرية المواطنين.

أما الإشكالية الثالثة ، فهي المبدأ الذي تقوم عليه الحرية وهو مغاير للأسس التي تقوم عليها الحرية في الوطن العربي . فالمبدأ الغربي لأساس الحرية هو اختراق حدود المقدسات بينما عند العرب فالمبدأ هو الاعتماد على هذه المقدسات التي هي خارج نطاق الحرية وليست محلا للتغيير . ومع أن الجزء الأول من الإشكالية قد يكون مبررا عند العرب ، إلا أن فهم الجزء الثاني منها يسبب مشكلة للحرية الجماعية والفردية على حد سواء . فالناس يتبعون عادات وتقاليد عفى عليها الزمن واكتست شرعية عبر عصور الجهل والتخلف ، مما يستدعي النظر فيها وإعادة صياغتها لتتناسب مع العصر الحديث ومصالح الناس . خذ مثلا الجهل في كثير من الأمور هو السيد المطاع أساسا وسلوكا  والمثل على ذلك قتل المرأة الزانية وقطع الأوصال للمجرمين والسارقين ورجم الزناة . واعتبار الولد مفخرة للآباء تغطي على وضع البنت في الأسرة . وتصبح المسألة عند الجهلاء أنها تحد للقانون مع أنها تحترم القانون وتحاول تعديل ما جاء به من جهل تصور التطبيق  له. واعتبار المقدس نظرية وسلوكا لا يحتاجان تعديلا أو تغييرا. فالعقاب للخارجين عن القانون في الغرب هو العقاب للخارجين عن القانون في الشرق . ولكن التطبيق لمفاهيم بالية تأخذ صفة القانون بين الجاهلين يعتبر إشكالية كبرى في فهم الحرية . فالمقدسات أمر هام  ولكن تصور الناس في تقديسها وتطبيق بعض أحكامها مما يتنافى مع الحقوق المشروعة للفرد يشكل خلافا كبيرا يدعو إلى التساءل.

الإشكالية الرابعة للحرية هي تطبيق القوانين السرمدية من سلطات لا تتسم بالعدل في تطبيقها ، وكأن القانون شيء وتطبيقه شيء آخر ، والتفرقة في التطبيق بين الناس لا تجعل للقانون معنى ، مما يتسبب بما لا يتناسب مع المشكلات الحديثة التي تتصل بالفساد الحكومي والتقاعس عن تطبيق العدالة من خلال القوانين في الثورة على الفساد مثلا ضد من يجير القوانين لمصالحهم الخاصة بدلا من العدالة في التطبيق والمساواة أمام القانون . فالطبقية والرشاوي والمعارف والعلاقات الظاهرة والخافية تطغى على القانون في كثير من البلاد العربية ،  فيصبح القانون شماعة للملابس القذرة يعلق عليها الفاسدون والمنحرفون عن عدالة تطبيق القانون ملابسهم القذرة دون رادع أو ضمير حي . وهذه إشكالية تستدعي من الشعب ممثلا بالمثقفين المسلحين بالعلم والنباهة أن يعملوا على تغييرها ، فإذا فعلوا نظرا لأن القوانين تتسنم مكانة قدسية عند الحكومات ، فإن تلك الحكومات تتصرف بأسلوب غير حضاري معهم عن طريق استعمال وسائل قمعية دون إعطائهم فرصة للدفاع وتبيان الحقائق حول القوانين المذبوحة وضياع عدالة وضعها ، فيستخدمون رجال البوليس وأزلام السلطة لمنعهم من التعبير عن سخطهم حول أخطاء يسببها عدم تطبيق القانون أساسا وروحا . كما تقوم الحكومات بإغلاق منابرهم والزج برؤسائهم في السجون دون محاكمات أو محاكمات شكلية لإرضاء العوام وذر الرماد في العيون . وتبقى العدالة وروح القانون في غيبوبة ، حتى يكون مزاج القائمين على سن القوانين مرتاحا ، فيقومون بتغيير بعض الوجوه ، وليس بعض القوانين التي تعتمد في أصولها على العدالة العالمية . ويبقى الحال على ما هو عليه بل أسوأ حالا فتسود الفوضى ويتجه الشباب إلى العنف كوسيلة سهلة للشكوى التي لا تجد حلولا عقلية لامتصاص غضبها وسماع أقوالها والعمل على تغيير عوامل أسبابها . 

أما الإشكالية الخامسة في فهم الحرية فهي معنية بمشرعي القانون أساسا ، فمعظم القوانين العربية أما لا توجد أساسا خارج نظاق القبيلة ، أو أنها مستوردة من الغرب. لذا فهي ليست مقدسة ولا تمثل دينا ولا شريعة ولا عقيدة ، فطبقات الشعب ليست موحدة من حيث الأديان والمستوى التعليمي والإقتصادي والسياسي ، وإن استمدت بعض أحكامها من الشريعة في بعض البلدان فهي تتناسى ما لمواطنة من حقوق وواجبات ، فينتشر الظلم في التفرقة كنتيجة في تطبيق القوانين التي تجور أحيانا على بعض الأقليات فتخرجهم من الملة ومن المواطنة وتجعلهم غرباء في أوطانهم  باسم القانون الذي وضع أساسا لإقامة العدل والمساواة في التطبيق .  وهذه الإشكالية لها أهمية خاصة ، لأن تصور الخروج على عملية تطبيق القوانين إنما هي دعوة لتغليب القوانين الغربية على القوانين التراثية مع أن القوانين التراثية لم تعد صالحة للبت في قضايا الشعوب مع غياب العدالة والتطبيق لتلك القضايا. والمسألة حسب المثقفين والنابهين من أبناء البلد في كل بلد ليس القوانين التراثية المقدسة بل ما تناثر منها فأصبح قاعدة للتطبيق للقوانين المستوردة . وهذا أمر لا يجب السكوت عليه. وخذ مثلا الفقر العام بين طبقات الشعب وتفاوت الطبقات والتمييز بين العائلات والمراكز القبلية والعسكرية وفقدان العدالة والمساواة كأساس لحفظ موارد الشعوب للشعوب ، وزيادة أعداد الأميين وقلة فرص العمل ، كلها عوامل تساهم في فهم الحرية عند العرب وغيرهم من البلدان المتخلفة .

 وفي الختام ، أرى أن قهر الشعوب لا يدوم ، وإن الفهم لمسببات هذه الإشكاليات أمر ميسر ، وحلها أكثر يسرا ، وأن طرقا ومناهج إنسانية وعقلية  لفهم أسباب  الشكاوى  وطرق حلها بما يتناسب مع حجمها في فئات الشعوب المتطلعة إلى العدالة لا يتعارض مع الحرية في شيء ولا ينال من المقدسات في شيء ، ولعل المجانين من أبناء الشعب أو الذين يتهمون بالجنون فيهم من يجد الحلول لحرية الشعب على مستوى الأفراد والمجموعات . وهذا أمر لا يدخل فيه الغرب طرفا ، لا أوروبا ولا الولايات المتحدة ، ولا غيرها له دخل في موضوع الحرية التي تذبح كل لحظة في بلاد العرب ، فدعوا الغرب في مشاكله التي تختلف اختلافا جوهريا عما عندكم يا عرب ، واهتموا بمشاكلكم وابنوا الحلول لتلك الحرية على أساس العدل والمساواة وهما الأكثر تقديسا من كل شريعة  تنادي بها ولا تطبقها بين تابعيها. وسيبقى الفريقان اللذان ذطرتهما غي بداية المقال هو الحال لسنين قادمة ما لم تتح الفرصة للإصلاحيين العقلاء المؤمنين المتنورين بالحرية مبدأ  وروحا .  

د. حسن يحيى – ميشيغان – الولايات المتحدة .  askdryahya@yahoo.com أو  info@dryahyatv.com

نبذة حول الكاتب : ولد الدكتور حسن ع. يحيى عام 1944 ودرس في مدارس فلسطين والأردن وجامعات لبنان والولايات المتحدة ، فقد نال درجة البكالوريوس في الآداب 1976، والماجستير (1983) والدكتوراة الأولى في الإدارة التربوية من جامعة ميشيغان (1988) والدكتوراة الثانية في علم الاجتماع المقارن من نفس الجامعة عام (1991). ويعمل بروفيسورا لدراسات الأديان المقارنة في ميشيغان . وله مؤلفات تفوق العشرين كتابا باللغتين العربية والانجليزية ، في مجالات التربية وعلوم النفس والاجتماع والسياسة ، وله أربعة دواوين شعرية وثلاث مجموعات قصصية ، ويعمل بروفيسورا لعلم الاجتماع في جامعة ميشيغان. وهو رئيس الاتحاد العالمي للكتاب العرب والمسلمين ورئيس معهد إحياء التراث العربي في الولايات المتحدة – ميشيغان .

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PART FOUR

Book Publications

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Book1.

 
 Dr. Yahya Publications

 

 

Book 2.

 

 
 

 

Book 3.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

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Book 4.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 5.

 

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Book 6.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 7.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 8.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 9.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 10.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 11.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 12.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 14.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 13

 

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Book 15.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 17.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 16.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 18

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 18

 

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Book 19.

 

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Book 20.

 

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Book 21.

 

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Book 23.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 22.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 24.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 25.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 26.

 

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Book 27.

 

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Book 28.

 

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Book 29.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 30.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 31.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 33.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 32.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

Book 34.

 

Hasanyahya.com

 

 

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        Look again, What Do you C.          

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www.Dryahyatv.com

An Arab TV Broadcast from Michigan-USA

@ AllRights Reserved for the owner

Professor Dr. Hasan Abdulqader Yahya

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PART FIVE

ENGLISH ARTICLES

Sweet Natasha: Short Love Story

Hasan Yahya, Ph.Ds

I was forty years old, far away from home in other country. Doing business with the government.  I never expected that autumn may meet with spring. She was twenty years old when I met her. I found her in the kitchen, immediately after entering the villa. She was cleaning dishes and singing with a low voice. I waited until she finished, she was preoccupied in her singing. Suddenly she turned her head and saw me standing three meters from her.

- “My name is John” I said. She bring a towel, and dried her hands.

- “I am Tasha. I mean, Natasha,” She said permitting her right hand to reach mine.

- “Nice to know you Tasha, I mean Natasha.” With no specific impression other than business like impression, when we meet someone for the first time.

- “Same here, Mr. John!” she said with a smile. 

- “What are you ding?” as if I did not know what she was doing. I know she was singing while working on dishes.

- “Well, I already finished.” She then asked,

- “Are you the new tenant? Dr. John. “

- “Oh! You know about me then?”

- “Yes, my dad told us yesterday about you and your company.”

- “What did he told you?” As if something I did not know.

- “Not much. But he mention your name as Dr. John, came to rent the villa.”

- “That’s true!” and like to listen to her fancy voice, going out of her small mouth, through her beautiful tiny lips. “go on, tell me more.” I said.

She offered me to go to the living room, so we continue talking.

Natasha was the owner’s daughter. She saw me on TV last night signing a contract with the government, about herself. She has one sister, works for the social services. She quit school after ninth grade. But continued her high school from home. She used to make the tests at the school in summertime. Her hair was long goes back on her white delicate neck, her eyes can tell you how dear and innocent she was, her dress was mixed with brown and gray lines. She looks healthy, enthusiastic, with her red cheeks. I saw her as an angel, talking prayers. Her smile never left her face.

I never expected that autumn may meet with spring, unless there is a miracle. But the miracle has happened. I did not stress hard to happen. She offered her services to take care of the villa while I am working or staying in. She in fact lived in the villa as if I was not there. She used to have her own room, at the end of the corridor.

I used to stay two weeks, at the villa in that country, and then coming back to America to see my family,  wife and children for two weeks or three, then go back to Natasha.  In my first trip back, to the USA, I spent one night in Frankfort, I had the urge to ask  about Natasha, but I did not try to do that, she came several times cross my mind, it was a delighted feeling to have her in the same place.

Six months passed, every time I came back from the USA, I brought a small gift for Natasha, we embrace and kissed each other on the cheek. I did not ask for gift return. She was in my daughter’s age. My feeling toward her was not more than a fatherhood sympathy. We both did not pass the line for expectations more than what it looks. My age is a little more double than hers. So I was serious not to have any sexual relations with her. But days passed, I offered her a job for the company and public relations, that implies to stay at the villa longer times than before. I began to know her better, what she likes, what she hates, and we became acquainted strongly. One day we went together shopping, in the City vegetable market, she was expert in dealing and trading. She always picks the best, and asks me, how do like it? My answer always was, “What”, and she used to laugh after hearing the word. That night, after she cooked, and we dine together, she began to tell me about her love  life. She was in love with someone, but he left the town far away, but he got married. and she was left alone. I show my sympathy by hugging her, saying, “poor, Natasha,”

 

That Night! Natasha wept, her tears were a wailing tree under rain. Later, she drew herself to her room. I did not find it would proper to follow her, so I watched TV program about skiing sports broadcasted from Italy. That night, the weather was rough, rain began to fall heavily, and the thunders were unbearable, the villa walls and doors were shaking. After midnight, I left my bed to the living room, went to the refrigerator to have something cold, and returned back to the living room, put my legs on chair,  Few minutes passed, I heard foot steps in the hall, she was Natasha, Looked at me, I immediately said:

- “Hay, how are you now? Hope you are well.”

- “I am better now, but the weather still angry.” Something came to my mind to say good word for her, so I said:

- “The weather is sharing you your sorrow in love, it’s sharing your eyes.” She came and sat beside me, she began to tell me why people dessert other people? In her case, the one who was in love with her left her. I said something about psychology, that people do not like to be left alone in a far away land, if you are away by distance, then you are faraway by heart, they say.

- “I need someone to love me, and keep me happy all time. I want to live with him, no matter how old or young he is. I don’t care. I wanted to be happy.” Her courageous attitude frightened me at the beginning, then I asked her, what she means by, I don’t care no matter how old? She said:

- “I don’t know, I think I feel disparate these days, I don’t have anything to live for.” It seemed to me as if she has symptoms of loneliness, fear  and despair, I offered my knowledge in these circumstances about psychology, I used the word “Change” to forget. We spent most of the night talking over the same topic, I understood from her, that she would not mind to love me. I was good with her, brought her gifts, and supported her at work, enjoyed couple trips in the mountains. And she’s twenty years old, and have good friendship with me.

 

I Left the next day to Italy  and arrange for Natasha to accompany me. She was delighted. We spent two nights as tourists, we visited too many places, I finished business and took dinner with Natasha the next day. Before we went back to our rooms, she suggested that she feels lonely and she would like to come to my room. I did not argue too much, with no idea in my mind may cross the norms in terms of my double age of Natasha’s. We sat in the balcony before midnight, talking about my family, my wife, and kids. She memorized all their names.

- “Do you mind if I sleep with you” suddenly she said.  I asked if she means, sleeping, sleeping, or having sex with me. She was very  happy, with her wonderful pinky dress, I bought her in the afternoon, she said:

- “You have done too many good things for me,” then she came close to me, I felt her breath and smelled her killing perfume, and continued to say whispering to my ear. “ Won’t you mind to have something back? I have the urge to sleep, sleep with you.”          

 

Hasan Yahya is a professor of sociology, a columnist at wfol.tv, Malaysia, and TINA International News Agency, Chicago, USA. www.hasanyahya.com

 

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First Time Dating – I      Published on articlesbase

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

 

What questions pup up in your mind: What should I do in the first Date? In psychology we learn that, if you were a boy or girl then your answer will vary drastically, girls look inside to themselves , boys, however, look for outside themselves for answers.

Psychology tells us that certain variables determine the answers. For example, age, sex, race, religion, marital status, education, wealth, etc., While most first dates come early in high schools, we will answer the question through that age, which is roughly between 12 and 18. In America, teenagers learn about dating from friends, media,  and by reading about it. They have answers according to their knowledge. But really, what should I wear, pups-up in the minds of girls, in other words, how I look, or should I look in the first date? But this is not the proper question to ask. A self control, and self conscious girl, may ask other questions about perfume, dress, but what you need to ask in the first date is: Do I know my partner?

This question makes you prepare certain question to know more about the guy or girl. Statement  like: tell me about your self, what you like, and how do feel? Something like that. The purpose of course is to know more about your partner, but if you know him for more than three months, and you know him very well, because he’s or she’s in you school, or your class, or your neighborhood, your questions should be about something else. For example, how generous I should be, how much permissive I should be dealing with certain questions about sex? About your secrets, which you want to keep for yourself. You don’t know whether the date will be successful or not. 

Suppose talking about oneself in the first date, you have to be a good listener, and alert to follow up with questions about certain words, or feelings. Some interesting points, like, how is that? Why do you think so? Or I like this, say it again. Laugh on his jokes, but not to show that you are making laughs out of contest. 

A boy or a girl likes to show kindness, concern to please each other, and both will be conservatives in their behavior, especially showing their bad qualities. So advice to both girls and boys in their first date can be suggested here:

1.         Imagine what you like, but never give bad comments about your partner’s behavior. Keep bad comments to yourself for later times.

2.         Don’t ask too much questions, and know your limitations. For example, on the dinner table, don’t look in the Menu for the most expensive items to test his generosity. So, the proper behavior is give  him or her the option to choose for both.

3.         Don’t act your behavior. In other words, don’t pretend that you are miss perfect. Show normality even if your partner is charming, and you feel positively strong emotions toward him or her.

4.         Real emotions may be told and show mutual respect. Because it will remembered life long.

5.         Pay your share (you and her or him) so you will not loose control of the situation. Males usually insist to pay.

6.         If he refused and insist, you will know of his personality and will know who will be the boss for years to come, If the consequences of the first date were right.

7.         A kiss at the end of the date, which girls expect as a farewell moment, should be short one.

The question which is often not asked from girls is, what are the expectations or the consequences of the first time dating? The answer for this question will be the subject of next article.  Happy dating time, folks. (642 words) www.hasanyahya.com

 

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR-Professor Hasan Yahya
** He is the President of the Palestinian Democratic Party (PDP) in the Diaspora
** His writings cover social and political issues concernong the Muslim world, Arabs and Palestinians.
** His interest is conflict resolution worldwide, with special emphasis on Palestinian Israeli conflict.
** The author published over 18 books and more than 120 articles on politics, sociology, psychology, and human rights. He is a poet and author of many short stories books in both Arabic and English.
** His books may be found on Target.com or amazon.com.

 

 

 

 

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God Speaks Urdu?

Published on wfol and articlesbase

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

 

What language God speaks? When we imagine the languages God knows, we immediately imagine a large number of dictionaries displayed in a huge library, millions of books in all languages, even dictionaries for sign languages, animal languages, and wind and ocean languages. Angels carry computers, books, and typewriters to perform their job.

The question was asked by my seven years old daughter, makes me confused how to answer the question.

My surprise was great, but makes me think of the answer, which I don’t know about. I remember that this question came to me when I was thirteen, but I dare not to ask my Dad about it. I was afraid of physical and emotional punishment.

I thought of Urdu Language to be the answer. Because Urdu is a Central Indo-Aryan language covers a large communities worldwide, and one of the Indo-European family of languages, the national language and one of the two official languages beside English of Pakistan. It is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. One more thing about Urdu, is that its vocabulary developed under Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic and Turkic. But my daughter will ask more questions, I do not need.

And now, here it is. The same question was asked by my daughter in her first grade. What would you answer, if your son or daughter or niece ask you the question? How do you react, while showing your ignorance. Teachers in schools, mostly face this kind of amazing and difficult questions, but they have their answers ready. It’s not my area, they may say, or later you may know the answer, when you get old enough. Or a third category may say, I don’t know.

Languages come to your mind if you face the question, such as Chinese, Hebrew, Arabic, English, German, French, Armenian, Swedish, etc.,  but non of them save self defeat and embarrassment. You can’t tell the right answer. Simply, because you don’t know for sure! And you will find that you are ignorant in this area.

So my response was after a long pose of thinking, while my daughter was waiting for the answer, believing that I knew it. All what I came up with was, to redirect the question and return  it backwards  to my daughter. I said: what language do you think God speaks?

If you face the question as a reader, what would be better answer than the magic answer: I don’t know. A seven years, first grade boy or girl does not need philosophy. I know or I did not know is simple answer. Otherwise, change the question or the topic immediately, and come up with a counter question like: let’s go out and have Ice cream. Otherwise, it easy to say:  God Speaks Urdu!  (587 words) www.hasanyahya.com

  

About the author:

Hasan Yahya is an American Arab scholar, and a professor of sociology. He published 27 plus books and 200 plus articles on sociology, psychology, politics, poetry, IQ Test Measurement and short stories in both Arabic and English. His articles may be found on articlesbase.com, Face book and other internet sites. His recent book published on Amazon titled: Legal Adultery: Sexuality  & World Cultures. (English) and Lawlaki: Lawlaki Poetry Diwan, Tales and articles, 2000 Bayt Min al-Shi'r al-Arabi. (Arabic). His recent book: Legal Adultery: Sexuality & World Cultures-English (On amazon- 2009). His recent activities reflects his talents and knowledge on youtube’s Dr. Yahya TV under the name of askdryahya. Dr. Yahya resides in Michigan, USA.

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Early Islamic Methodology Through al-Bukhari - 1

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

 “The strong tendency of contemporary society has been to minimize the importance of religion, and to treat it as a matter of superstition which has no place in the enlightened thinking of modern civilized man.” This tendency, whether it is relatively true or not, is one of several difficulties that face researchers and investigators of religious topics. Other difficulty is the way we deal with such topics. We mean by this the method we apply to study these topics subjectively or objectively. While some scholars justifies using both approaches, each has its biases and errors which stem from researchers’ ideologies and credibility, in addition to time and scholarship factors. But questions might be raised, such as, can we construct religious research with the least possible error? And who will suppose to conduct that research—the religious people or the scientists? In other words, the traditional or the nontraditional? If we try to answer these questions and support each of them, we hardly escape critics of supporters of each view. This, in our opinion, is not the way to find an agreement among advocates of both toward solid acceptable view. Researchers and scientists, we believe, agree that both views lack exhaustiveness in nature, and that what suits research methodology in one of them is not necessarily suit the other, and that also has its own credibility and characteristics. To escape subjectivity approach, this paper will not discuss the content of Hadith, instead, it will discuss the “How” al-Bukhari synthesized his “Sahih” genuine? Why Hadith was not written in the form as al-Bukhari did? Why we chose al-Bukhari for this study? And lastly, is his methodology scientific in the sense of contemporary research measures? Discussion will not be systematically handled.

Hadith Writing: Traditional leaders of faith were divided into two main directions concerning writing Hadith. One direction was supporting, while the other was opposing. Each view has its sold rule which stems from the Prophet’s(PBUH) sayings. This did not necessarily mean that Hadith or some Hadith was not written in the early years of Islam, or that oral Hadith was the only authority. By the passage of time, circumstances have been changed, and traditionalists feel that oral Hadith began to lose its popularity for political, religious, and social reasons. The need to protect Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) was raised as a priority and demand to face spurious and false hadiths. The unity of faith interpretation was acquired traditionists by all means to collect and writing down Hadith or what remains of it in the memories of the authentic people, in addition to Qur’an commentaries and interpretations.

New methods were set up in this regard for reproducing the Sunnah in most authentic manner to serve the Muslim society “the Ummah of Islam” and to distinguish reliable and authentic traditions from inference ones. Al-Bukhari was the landmark in this field. His work was honored and was highly respected. His book “Sahih” is the fruition of the traditionists’ efforts in the third century of al-Hijrah. (515 words) www.hasanyahya.com

 

 

 

Early Islamic Methodology Through al-Bukhari - 2

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

Hadith Methodology and science: Was Islamic methodology in general and Hadith in particular scientific in the contemporary research measures? To answer this question without considering time, place, and subject matter factors is arbitrary and unfair in comparative analysis. We can confidently say that the Islamic methodology was not exhaustive in nature, and that it has its own characteristics and concepts which distinguish that methodology from others. This, of course, does not mean the opposite of what is known about contemporary methodology. But it simply means—to judge fairly—that contemporary research measures are invalid to judge other methodology used one thousand years ago. Inaccuracy of these measures stems from time, place, subject matter and accumulative knowledge available for these methodologies. In the study of religion, in general, and Hadith (in our case) in particular, involves a broad framework of theoretical propositions at any given stage of its development. Religious studies tended to be under two categories, normative and positivistic thinking. The first relies on subjectivity, while the second relies on reason analysis of results or what as rationalistic approach.

Parsons, for instance, justifies using both approaches in religious research. It will be hard and inaccurate to judge Islamic methodology regarding these approaches for the above mentioned reasons. To serve the argument whether Islamic methodology is scientific or not is to define science. Science is described as “a way of generating data and testing the truth of statements about events in the world of human experience.”

Science has two aspects, one is a body of useful and practical knowledge and a method of obtaining it. Scientists almost emphasize and agree that science is the method of collecting data, and that every scholar has to choose the method which suits her/his study. By analogy we say that a method applied in one’s research in a specific time and place might not be applicable in other’s research. From this discussion we might deduce supportive conclusion to the view that early Islamic methodology is scientific in the sense of collecting data methods used by Muslim scholars as al-Bukhari. Al-Bukhari was one of the leading Imams who represented the finalstage of the Hadith collection. The other stages are:

The companions of the Prophet (PBUH), or Ahab al-Suffah of Madina Mosque, such as Abu Hurayrah, Jabir b. Abdullah, the Mother of Faithful A’ishah, Umar, Ali, Sa’ad b. ‘Ubadah, and Abdullah b. Abbas, and many others.

After the death of the Prophet (PBUH), the Qur’an was the method of decisions, and the Prophet’s (PBUH) saying which obtained wide reputation publicly.

Hadith restored to different public centers, and writing Hadith became common. The collection of Hadith by Imam Malik, Imam Hanbal and others became known.

The stage was the permanent shape, and came to have the forms of Masanid (Authorities) musannafat (classifications) according to topics.

Here, where al-Bukhari belongs, we find that the traditions were collected together, the Sihah-Sittah, (The six Authentic books) are the most authentic collection representing this stage.

In his methodology al-Bukhari was reliable and authentic in collecting data in an age where people lie and falsify hadith for several reasons. It was a challenge to proof the truth. This challenge dictated and supported the method of research which will be discussed thoroughly in the following pages. (556   words) – www.hasanyahya.com

 

Early Islamic Methodology Through al-Bukhari- 3

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

Al-Bukhari and his Methodology: In this section we will discuss why al-Bukhari was chosen for this study, and what was his methodology of Hadith collection, and finally, why he was considered as a pioneer in this field, and what was the impact of his work on other scholars during and after his time? With the fact that complete knowledge does not exist in man, al-Bukhari applied what he thought, the accurate measurement of obtaining solid information to be reserved in a written form against fabrication, which was the phenomenon of the time. Logically, his work will be a reflection of spurious fabricated Hadith, or a solid reaction against falsification in his period of time. The first option was and is unthinkable, for one reason that Muslim scholars and the public consider his work as the most genuine book after Qur’an, and the most ancient and authoritative collection. Most scholars and historians consider also, the third century as the golden age for Hadith science (figure1.) It was the shift from the four Imams of jurisprudence, and their methodology of interpreting Qur’an and Hadith, to a new treatment of collecting what the Prophet (PBUH) had said and did in his life.

Hijrah Years

          80---------------------  150    170   190   200   210   220   240   260   280   300 310

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abu Hanifah 80 -------------- 150 (772 A.D)

Malik 93 ---------------------------179 (800)

Al-Shafi’I 150 ----------------------- 204 (824)

Ibn Hanbal 164 --------------------------- 241 (8884)

Al-Darimi -------------------------------------- 255 (869)

Al-Bukhari 194 -----------------------------------256 (870)

Muslim 204 -------------------------------------------261 (874)

Ibn Majah --------------------------------------------------273 (885)

Abu-Daud 203 ------------------------------------------------275 (887)

Al-Tarmidi --------------------------------------------------------279 (891)

Al-Nasa’I ------------------------------------------------------------ 303 (914)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Figure 1. Jurisdiction Imams and collectors of the tradition.

Al-Bukhari was an encyclopediac pious man. He spent most of his life studying or traveling for the sake of knowledge. He has a strict criteria to judge people and documents. He was enslaved to that strict methodology and neglected many genuine traditions simply because these traditions failed to commensurate with his conditions and evaluation. For his criteria, he was and still is highly respected by Muslims in all times and places. Al-Bukhari was the first to apply what we can confidently describe as scientific investigation with the least possible error. Concerning definition of methodology which is a system of explicit rules and procedures upon which research is based and against claims for knowledge are granted. Al-Bukhari applied research methods such as historical, comparative, and field research methods under a system of strict rules and procedures. What was important in this case was the impact of these methods on other scholars who used some of his conditions and methods to accept accurate data in recent years. Al-Bukhari has authored many books inhistory, culture, and Qur’anic commentaries. His works have been crowned by his famous “Sahih.”

Another impact of his methodology was mirrored in hundreds of exegeses which exceeds 25 volumes by later scholars such as Ibn Hajar (d. 852), Qastallani (d. 923), and others. (505   words) – www.hasanyahya.com

Early Islamic Methodology Through al-Bukhari - 4

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

Methodology Assumptions:  The tendency of al-Bukhari’s work was “to compile a manual of Hadith according to the wishes of his shaikh Ishaq b. Rahawayh.” This was the authority to begin a long journey to look for viable and reliable content to his manual. We will cite an assumptionfor his methodology and theoretical propositions to see how al-Bukhari compiled his manual or how, if we put ourselves in his shoes, how he dealth with theoretical and methodological problems. His research proposition, we assume, will be as follows:

Proposition 1. Authentic narrators give authentic Isnad ( chain of transmitters) and Matn (the words of Hadith).

Proposition 2. Authenticity of both Isnad and Matn results authentic Hadith.

These two assumptions need to be tested in order to prove their reality or their truth. To do so, we have to have hypotheses to test on the ground of these propositions. Before doing so, we have to point out the variables used in the above propositions. The independent variable will be the authenticity of narrators, while authenticity of Hadith (Isnad and Matn) will be the dependent variable. These variables to be tested we compile the following two hypotheses:

Hypothesis 1. There is positive relationship between authenticity of narrators and authenticity of Hadith (Isnad and Matn).

Hypothesis 2. There is positive relationship between disauthenticity and Hadith falsification.

Insofar, we have propositions, variables, and hypotheses. What we need is to assume how al-Bukhari tested his hypotheses, or how has he collected data for his study? Figure 2. Gives both dependent as well as independent variables, To illustrate, suppose he wants to collect Hadith. This means, of course, to contact narrators of Isnad and Matn. Neither Isnad nor authenticity alone norauthenticity of Matn alone makes Hadith acceptable under the conditionsof al-Bukhari. He has prove authenticity of both in order to accept and edit Hadith in his “Sahih.” To prove Isnad he has to examine two sources: men and available history materials. Regarding the first, he has to ask people about the narrators, their students, and their shaikhs, about their reputation, their behavior, and their authenticity (Thiqah), then he will ask these men or women themselves about many items as if he has a questionnaire. Some of these items are constructed (see table 1.) to cover the narrator’s personal, professional, and public life. Such items as the name of the narrator, his father’s and mother’s name, his grandfather’s name, his nickname, and his tribe, his teachers and disciples, his sample of narrations and titles. In additionm he asks about his creed, journeys he made, when, why, and who were the scholars he has met, and what proof he has. These information were used to prove Isnad’s authenticity. The process was the same for any other informant. Otherwise, his or her Isnad will not be acceptable, and no need to check the Matn. (487 words) – www.hasanyahya.com

Early Islamic Methodology Through al-Bukhari - 5

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

This article will define the dependent and independent variables as well as type of information for collection.

 

1. Independent Variables ---------------              Dependent Variables

Isnad                      ---------------------------                            Matn

Men History         --------------------------             Qur’an Hadith Reason (‘Aql)

Language              -------------------------                    HADITH  SAHIH

Culture                                                                  

History (Genuine)

Biographies Documents OR

(Authentic Reputation Books Hadith)

Reliability Biographies

Time

Space

Figure 2. Independent and dependent Variables.

History will be checked through documents, books, and biographies to prove or to make what he has been told was reliable and valid. He has to examine the kind of papers, ink, and the way the documents were written, and examine times and places of these writings.

Table 1. Information to be collected about the Narrators*

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Name ------------------------------- Father’s Naame ----------------------

DOB -------------------------------- Grandfatheer’s Name ----------------

Nickname -------------------------- Job -------------------------------------

Tribe -------------------------------- Narration Time -----------------------

City/Village ------------------------ Narrations place ----------------------

His Shaikhs ------------------------ His Disciples -------------------------

--------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------

Sample of Narrations His biography --------------------------------------

With Isnad ------------------------- Places he visited ---------------------

Titles of Narrations --------------- Scholarshe Met ----------------------

--------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------

Personal Descriptions When -----------------------------------------------

Bodily ------------------------------- Where ---------------------------------

Mind Condition ------------------- Evidence -------------------------------

His Creed -------------------------- Date of Death -------------------------

Neutral ----------------------------------------------------- (If not known)

Support ---------------------------- to any relatedd event) ----------------

Against ---------------------------- -------------------------------------------

His Battles ------------------------ His Activities -------------------------

His Social Status ----------------- -------------------------------------------

His Character --------------------- Memory Conditions -----------------

______________________________________________________

* This narrator Identification Card as projected and collected by the writer from al-Bukhari methodology and several sources cited in the bibliography.

If al-Bukhari is convinced by the evidence that Isnad was authentic, we assume that he would turn to the matn to examine its authenticity. The main criteria he has, the Qur’an, Hadith, and Reason if Hadith was not in contradiction with Qur’an, it will be accepted primarily, but that was not enough. We assume for more tests that he will turn to examine the matn’s content. (325 words) – www.hasanyahya.com

 

Early Islamic Methodology Through al-Bukhari - 6

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

In this article we will explain types of Hadith and their names as well as types of  fabricated Hadiths.

 

 

Table 2. Hadith Concepts According to the Number of Narrators.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Narrator by One -------------------------------------------Ghareeb (Unfamiliar)

Narrated by Two ------------------------------------------Aziz (Strong)

Two to Five -----------------------------------------------Mashhur or Mustafeed (Widspread)

More than Five --------------------------------------------Mutawatir (Undoubted )

Complete Isnad --------------------------------------------Muttasil (Continuous)

One or Two Missed ----------------------------------------Munqati’ (Discontinuous)

Missing Isnad

At the start -------------------------------------------------Mu’allaq (Suspended)

At the End -------------------------------------------------Mursal (Open)

 

Table 3. Concepts of Fabricated Hadith According to the Rawi (the narrator)

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Narrator* Narration

Known as a Lier ----------------------------------------Mawdu’ (Spurious)

Accused ------------------------------------------------Matrook (Suspended)

Fasiq (evil) ----------------------------------------------Mubham (Ambigious)

Ignorant -------------------------------------------------Mat’oon (Biased)

Innovative -----------------------------------------------Mardood (Rejected)

* For more of these concepts, see Ibn Hajar (d. 852), he classified 12 levels of narrators.

Comparing it with another Hadith, if available, and if it was not, he will examine the content linguistically, culturally, and historically. If these tests support positively the authenticity of the Matn, without contradiction, it will be accepted as genuine. Al-Bukhari was fair enough to say why he accepted or rejected some Hadiths. He has his own technical terminology for Hadith and Musnids. (Tables 2 and 3)

Criticism and Conclusion: Several claims of Muslim and non-Muslim scholars were made about Hadith in general and al-Bukhari in particular. Despite the fact that Hadith was written in several stages of traditional development Schacht who was in conformity with Goldzihar work, followed Necholson and claimed that Hadith was invented in the second century without checking new developments and discoveries in the field. Schacht also claimed that HadithMatn in some points was contradictory to Qur’an. This claim in essentially violates the rules of collecting Hadith, which clearly emphsize that no reported saying or action of the Prophet (PBUH) is accepted as authentic and reliable (aadel) unless it was in conformity with the letter and spirit of Qur’an. Muslim scholars criticized al-Bukhari’s work, this critic was to about 80 narrators and some 100 Hadiths. The criticism showed that these Hadiths and narrators did measure up to the standard of his conditions.

 ( 365 words) – www.hasanyahya.com

Early Islamic Methodology Through al-Bukhari - 7

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

Criticism and Conclusion: Several claims of Muslim and non-Muslim scholars were made about Hadith in general and al-Bukhari in particular. Despite the fact that Hadith was written in several stages of traditional development Schacht who was in conformity with Goldzihar work, followed Necholson and claimed that Hadith was invented in the second century without checking new developments and discoveries in the field. Schacht also claimed that HadithMatn in some points was contradictory to Qur’an. This claim in essentially violates the rules of collecting Hadith, which clearly emphsize that no reported saying or action of the Prophet (PBUH) is accepted as authentic and reliable (aadel) unless it was in conformity with the letter and spirit of Qur’an. Muslim scholars criticized al-Bukhari’s work, this critic was to about 80 narrators and some 100 Hadiths. The criticism showed that these Hadiths and narrators did measure up to the standard of his conditions.

Al-Bukhari’s work was not mutually exclusive. He described his work as manual, but what was not included from Hadith in his book “Sahih” does not mean that it was not authentic. This was emphasized by al-Bukhari himself. If al-Bukhari committed errors in his methodology, these errors would not defame his great work. Instead, they called reasons (‘aql) to examine these errors carefully and objectively side by side with concrete unchangeable beliefs toward the truth of Islamic legacy through the Prophet’s (PBUH) sayings and actions.

In conclusion, the honor for al-Bukhari’s work stems from the honor of his subject matter, which might draw what is called an “error”of respect in contemporary research methods. This “error” of respect actually did not prevent al-Bukhari from rejecting many hadiths for a simple reason, such as a missing member in the chain of narrators, or lack of historical connection between narrators and their place of origin, etc., In our judgment, if the error of respect was true in al-Bukhari’s case, in research conceptualization, we might see thousands of Hadiths, not only 2,602 Hadiths, which are ncluded in his Sahih, and which only consists of a small proportion of less than 2 percent of what he has memorized. May Allah reward him for his great work as well as us, (377  words) – www.hasanyahya.com

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