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ARABS IN DIASPORA

Almost everything about Dispora!

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Here is a collection of articles, for researchers who are interested in Diaspora research.

You can click on any title:

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         Arab and Muslims in North America-Part Two

         Wiki: Diaspora (1/2)

         Arab Diaspora: Shall I Marry a Non-Arab?

         West Asia: Postmodernism, the Diaspora, and Women Artists

         Hasan A. Yahya

         Report on Summit of Diaspora Jewish Communities and Organizations

         Cracking Down on Diaspora: Arab Detroit and America's "War on Terror"

         Africans in Diaspora trace their roots in Tanzania

         Diego and Dora on TV and Arab Language

         Diversity and diaspora

         Arab Diaspora

         Islam in Europe

         Arab diaspora: Encyclopedia - Arab diaspora

         A Comparative Study of Post-9/11 Diaspora Mobilization in USA and Canada

         Muslims in America

         Jewish exodus from Arab lands

         100 Questions about Arabs in America

        Islam Has Brought Peace and Harmony to the Middle East All Through History

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ARABS IN DIASPORA

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Arabs in America/Facts and Demography

 

Posted by: dryahyatv.com

 

General Summary

 

An Estimated 5 Million Arab Americans live in the United States with the largest concentrations in California, Michigan, Illinois, New York, New Jersey and Florida.

Religion: Over 60% of Arab-Americans are Christian.

Education: The Arab community of Detroit has one of the highest educational attainments of any ethnic group. While one in five (20.3%) of all Americans has graduated from college, almost two in five Arab Americans (36.3%) have a college degree. Arab-Americans own an estimated 3,000 businesses in Michigan.

Metropolitan Detroit is the largest concentration of Arabs outside of the Middle East. Over 400,000 people of Arabic heritage live in Metro Detroit.

Over two-thirds of Arabs live in ten states; one-third in California, New York, and Michigan.

Arab Americans of Michigan live primarily in Wayne and Oakland Counties.

 

Introduction

The vast majority of Arab-Americans are citizens of the United States. They are very much like other Americans, except younger, more educated, more affluent and more likely to own a business. Like any other immigrant group, Arab-Americans want to enjoy America's riches while preserving the important parts of their native culture.

Though Arab-Americans are the least-studied ethnic group in the United States, they receive considerable publicity associated with political and economic events, a good example of which has been the intense focus on the community in the aftermath of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks in New York, Washington and Pennsylvania. While this attention may be of grave political and diplomatic importance, it overshadows Arab-Americans' financial and social impact in the United States. 
More importantly, such attention - including the current focus on the community - points out a longstanding problem: Very little is actually publicized and discussed about the make-up of the community. The lack of information, coupled with the media's tendency to use broad strokes to associate Arab-Americans with Arabs in the Middle East, has at times put the community in a defensive position. This article, which is based on the 1990 U.S. Census (which is the most recent available information) addresses the lack of information by providing a demographic and economic picture of the community.

 

Census Figures on Arab Population in U.S.

Data on Arab ancestry released today by the U.S. Bureau of the Census tell part of the story of a community that has captured much public attention since the tragic events of September 11. It is estimated that the 2000 Census question on ancestry, which measures ethnicity beyond official race classifications, captured about one-third of the total population that traces its roots to the Arabic-speaking world. While the just-released census figures account for about 1.25 million Americans of Arab descent, private research by the Arab American Institute  and Zogby International  indicates a population that exceeds 3 million. Reasons for the undercount include the effect of the sample methodology on small, unevenly distributed ethnic groups, high levels of intermarriage among the third and fourth generations, and distrust/misunderstanding of government surveys among more recent immigrants.

"While the overall population counts are very low, we do learn important facts from the 2000 Census" stressed Helen Samhan, director of the Arab American Institutes Census Information Center, which disseminates and analyzes Census data on Arab ancestry. "We establish concentrations, growth patterns and trends, shifts among and between nationality groups, etc. Four of the top ten states where Arab Americans live (New York, New Jersey, Illinois and Texas) more than doubled since 1990 the population who identify with one or more Arab ancestries," noted Samhan. Local areas with the most significant increase since 1990 include Wayne County (MI), Orange County (CA), Cook County (IL) and Kings County (NY). The AAI Foundation will produce state and national demographic profiles in the coming months, including density maps that can be used by local service organizations.

Later this year, the Census will release the long-awaited characteristics on the Arab ancestry population, including education levels, occupation, citizenship rates, family size and many more indicators for further research. Samhan adds "With so many stereotypes about Arabs and suspicions since 9/11, the Census helps us tell the true story of how rooted and accomplished we are as a community. We can see the fruits of generations of Arab immigrants who have made America their home and continue to make positive contributions to the welfare of the country." Updated projections of the Arab American population by state and county, based on census data and other estimates, will be prepared in the coming months and will be summarized on the AAI websites demographics page.

A Word on Limitations of Counting Arab-Americans


The 1990 U.S. Census found 870,000 Americans who list "Arab" as one of their top two ancestries. This census definition is inconsistent, however, and not necessarily reliable. Before 1920, census records lumped Arabs together with Turks, Armenians, and other non-Arabic speaking people. Moreover, until recently, non-Syrian Asian Arabs were counted as "other Asians," and others categorized as "other Africans." Palestinians, the main postwar group, were counted as refugees, Israelis or nationals of their last country of residence.
If the census undercount were adjusted and if Arab-Americans filled out census forms, their number today might be as large as three million.
Census data show that 82 percent of Arab-Americans are U.S. citizens, with 63 percent born in the United States. Fifty-four percent of Arab-Americans are men, compared with 49 percent of the total U.S. population. This is partly because men of all nationalities typically immigrate before women do.
The Arab-American population as a whole is quite young; again, probably because younger people are more likely to immigrate. Many Arab-Americans are in their childbearing years, or are native-born children or teenagers.
In general, Arab-Americans are better educated than the average American. More of them attend college, and they earn masters or higher degrees at twice the average rate. Because they tend to be well educated and of working age, their work force rates are high. Eighty percent of Arab-Americans aged 16 and older were employed in 1990, compared with 60 percent of all Americans. In addition, only 7 percent of Arab-American entrepreneurs receive public assistance, compared with 1.7 percent of non-Arab-Americans.
In a volatile economy, with many large companies laying people off, Arab-Americans --who often are entrepreneurs or self-employed (14 percent versus 8 percent) -- may be less vulnerable to company layoffs.

 

Arab History in the U.S.

 

Arabs immigrating since World War II have tended to be from capitalist classes -- landed gentry and influential urban-based families -- replaced by new leadership in their various home countries. Many post-war immigrants were Palestinians displaced when Israel was established in 1948. Others were Egyptians whose land was appropriated by the Nasser regime; Syrians overthrown by revolutionaries; and Iraqi royalists fleeing the Republican regime. They often had attended Western or westernized schools, spoke fluent English, and identified themselves as members of a professional class.
Immigration from the Middle East increased dramatically in the late 1960s. By 1990, more than 75 percent of foreign-born Arab-Americans in had immigrated after 1964, compared with 52 percent of the total U.S. foreign-born population. The largest share (44 percent) of these arrived between 1975 and 1980, compared with 24 percent of all other foreign-born persons. 
Many Arabs immigrated during this period because of constant turmoil in the Middle East: the 1967 war, the civil war in Lebanon, the Kurd-Iraqi War of the 1960s and the violence in Iraq and Iran after 1978 all were trigger points. These coincided with the U.S. Immigration Act of 1965, which ended the quota system favoring immigrants from Europe. Many in this migration flow were Muslim, with even higher educations and incomes than their predecessors. This group's socioeconomic attainment pattern also greatly surpassed that of other immigrant group, and the American population as a whole.

 

Arab Residence in the U.S.


Today, Arab-Americans -- like many minority groups -- are geographically concentrated. Over two-thirds live in ten states; one-third in California, New York, and Michigan. They are also more likely than other Americans to live in metropolitan areas. Thirty-six percent of Arab-Americans are found in ten cities, primarily Detroit, New York, or Los Angeles.
Entrepreneurs in the United States, whether or not they are Arab-American, most often live in the Pacific, South Atlantic, East North Central, or Mid-Atlantic regions. The regional distribution of Arab-American entrepreneurs is similar to that of non-Arab-American entrepreneurs.

 

Social Factors: Age, Sex and Marital Status 

Both groups of entrepreneurs - Arab-American and non-Arab-American -- tend to be between the ages of 25 and 44, and their age distributions are similar, with Arab-Americans generally younger than their non-Arab-American counterparts in most age categories, which may reflect the large proportion of self-employed Arab-American workers. Studies of other ethnic groups show that businesses tend to be established by newer immigrants, and Arab immigrants are, for the most part, young.
Entrepreneurship in the United States is male-dominated. Regardless of ancestry, 67.4 percent of entrepreneurs are male, 32.6 percent female. The ratio of male to female entrepreneurs is slightly larger for Arab-American than for non-Arab-American entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs of all ancestries in the United States are likely to be married (74.3 percent for non-Arab-Americans and 73.6 percent for Arab-Americans). It is interesting to note, however; that close to 16 percent of Arab-American entrepreneurs are never-married singles (compared to 11.7 percent for non-Arab-Americans).

 

Education 

In general, Arab-Americans are better educated than the average American. A greater percentage attends college, and those who earn master's degrees or higher do so at twice the national average. While most entrepreneurs in the United States have only a high school diploma or some college experience, Arab-American entrepreneurs are more likely to attend college and have college and postgraduate degrees.
These patterns remain the same when broken down by sex. Male entrepreneurs are more likely than females to have postgraduate degrees, however, and women entrepreneurs are more likely to have only a high school diploma or some college experience.

 

Religion 

Before 1960, as many as 90 percent of Arab immigrants were Christians, but recent immigrants are mostly Muslim.
There were several prominent sects within the Christian population: Maronite Christians from Lebanon, Coptic Christians from Egypt and Chaldeans from Iraq.
The new immigrants settled in or near established Arab-American communities. The Detroit metropolitan region, especially Dearborn, attracted a steady stream of Arab immigrants after 1965 and may have the largest number of recent Arab immigrants. Most came from a variety of occupational backgrounds and found work in the auto industry or in other working-class employment, although not all Detroit Arabs sought such employment.
Christian Chaldeans, an Iraqi minority in a Muslim country, were among the first to take advantage of the 1965 immigration act. About one thousand lived in Detroit before passage of the act. After 1965 their numbers increased, until by 1974 they accounted for approximately one-seventh of Detroit's estimated 70,000 Arab-Americans. They opened grocery stores and established a reputation in that business similar to that of Korean grocers. By 1972 the Chaldeans were running about 278 stores in Detroit, and assisting others in the United States.
Another large Arab-American settlement in Brooklyn had attracted earlier Lebanese and Syrian migrations. Los Angeles lured many Coptic Christians from Egypt, part of the Egyptian immigrant wave after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.

 

Wealth and Income

 

As occupation and industry vary, so does income. The average Arab-American entrepreneur may have a higher personal and household income than a non-Arab-American counterpart in most regions of the United States.
Median household income is strikingly higher for Arab-Americans in the Pacific, Northeast, New England, and South Atlantic regions, exceeding $50,000 annually. Arab-Americans in the Mountain region have higher household, but lower personal, incomes. In the Pacific region incomes of the two groups are similar, with non-Arab-American entrepreneurs having lower household but slightly higher personal incomes.
When median personal income is broken down by sex, many of the above-noted patterns are repeated. Arab-American female and male entrepreneurs earn more than their non-Arab-American counterparts in New England, West North Central, South Atlantic, and East South Central. Non-Arab-American male and female entrepreneurs tend to have higher personal incomes in the Mountain region. All women, regardless of ancestry, earn very little, but Arab-American female entrepreneurs typically earn more than non-Arab-American females in all regions except West South Central and Mountain. Males of all ancestries typically earn more than females in every region.

 

Politics

 

There have been 17 Arab-American members of Congress but Arab Americans as a group have not been involved in political activity beyond voting and have suffered from a lack of understanding of the way the political system actually works. Some activists believe the only way Arab Americans will succeed politically is to form coalitions and help allies work on their own issues but others insist that Arab Americans should concentrate solely on the issues particular to themselves. The estimated 3,000,000 Arab Americans are a diverse group, differentiated by religion, age, country of origin, length of stay in the United States but they are as one in facing marginalization and discrimination. The Arab-American community lacks the financial resources to compete with the Jewish-American community in the political sphere but it has enough resources to become a significant force in the American political system.

Those were some of the contradictions and divergent points of view heard at an all-day conference on Arab Americans and political participation that was organized by the Division of U.S. Studies and funded in part by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and that attracted an audience itself as diverse as representatives of the PLO Mission to the United States, AIPAC, and the State Department. The participants were drawn from universities and the worlds of NGO activism and national politics.

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Arab Personalities in the USA

Jean AbiNader: Jean AbiNader is Deputy Director of the Moroccan American Center and is a founding board member of the Arab American Institute. He is president and CEO of IdeaCom, an international marketing firm based in Bethesda, MD. He has extensive experience with foreign relations & international business development and was the President of the U.S. Arab Chamber of Commerce from 1986-1993. He also serves as an adjunct professor at Georgetown University.

Helen Hatab Samhan : Helen Hatab Samhan is Executive Director the Arab American Institute Foundation in Washington D.C., an affiliate of the Arab American Institute which has represented Arab American issues in politics, elections, leadership training and public policy since 1985. Ms. Samhan lectures and publishes on Arab American affairs, particularly the immigrant experience of Arabs in the U.S., their identity and demographics, the history of anti-Arab racism, political involvement and Arab American women. She serves on numerous boards and holds a masters degree in Middle East studies from the American University of Beirut. Ms. Samhan is active in civic affairs in northern Virginia, where she resides with her husband and two children.

Dr. Hasan A. Yahya: Hasan is a professor of Sociology at Michgan State University. A theorist, writer, and philosopher. His writings cover the social and the psychological aspects of Arab and Muslims in the United States. He was consultant for several Arab countries for educational administration and supervision and census construction. As specialist in Race Relations, he studied Arab-Muslims in America. Dr. Yahya was awarded the AICA Achievement Award 1996 and the LTS in 2006. As an high achiever Arab American, he obtained two post doctorate degrees. Dr. Yahya authored more than 26 books, and published hundreds of articles in both Arabic and English languages. Hes the president and CEO director of dryahyatv channel Board and the sole owner of the Channel shares. Dr. Yahya has four children and Eight grandchildren. He resides in Michigan. www.dryahyatv.com/

Dr. James Zogby: Jim serves as the President of the Arab American Institute in Washington, DC. He co-founded the organization in 1985 and for the past two decades has been involved in a full range of Arab American issues. He also co-founded the Palestine Human Rights Campaign in the late 1970s, and later co-founded and served as the Executive Director of the American-Arab-Anti-Discrimination Committee. He serves on the National Democratic Ethnic Coordinating Committee as well as on the Council on Foreign Relations. Jim host a weekly television show called, Viewpoint with James Zogby and writes a weekly newspaper column, Washington Watch.

John Zogby: John is President & CEO of Zogby International in Utica, NY and is a highly-regarded pollster. He has been the best performing pollster in past U.S. and presidential elections and has polled for Reuters, NBC News, Fox News and many other news organizations. In 1996, he was labeled the Most Accurate Pollster by USA Today. John has been tracking public opinion for 16 years in North America, Latin America, the Middle East, Asia and Europe.
www.zogby.com/

Other Arab Personalities and Professionals:

 

Wajdi Abdeen, Business Owner, Glendale, AZ

Hossam Abdel-Maksoud, Pharmacist/Business Owner, Maksoud Pharmacies, New York, NY

Samir Abu-Ghazaleh, Physician, Sioux Falls, SD

Ismael Ahmed, Executive Director, Arab Community Center for Economic and Social Services.

Yahya Basha, Radiologist, Founder, Muslim American Council, Basha Diagnostics, P.C., Royal Oak, MI

Ali Bazzi, Physician, North Miami Beach, FL

Kathleen Christison, writer and former government analyst;

Sherine El-Abd, President, New Jersey Federation of Republican Women, Clifton, NJ

Nijad Fares, CEO, Link Group, LLC

Samia Farouki, CEO, HaiFinance, McLean, VA

Hani Findakly, Investment Banker, McLean, VA

Abdel Kader Fustok, Physician, Founder, Arab American Cultural & Community Center, Houston, TX

Edward Gabriel, CEO, The Gabriel Company, LLC, Former U.S. Ambassador to Morocco, Washington, DC

Gary Gerstle, Professor of History, University of Maryland;

Samuel Halaby, Jr., Attorney, Pittsford, NY

Tariq Jawad, Director of Investment Banking, Rodman and Renshaw

Abdeen Jabara, civil rights attorney and former Executive Director, American-Arab Anti Discrimination Committee;

Assad Jebara, CEO, Zanadi Jeans, Morristown, NJ,

Nadine Naber, Assistant Professor of American Culture and Women's Studies, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor;

Jen'nan Ghazal Read, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of California-Irvine;

Ghassan Saab, CEO, Sorensen Gross Construction Co. Flint, MI

Helen Hatab Samhan, Executive Director, Arab American Institute Foundation;

Michael Suleiman, University Distinguished Professor of Political Science, Kansas State University;

John H. Sununu, former Governor of New Hampshire and President of JHS Associates, Ltd.;

Ronald Stockton, Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan-Dearborn;

Janice Terry, Professor of Middle Eastern History, Eastern Michigan University;

Majdi Wadi, CEO, Holy Land Bakery and Deli, Founder, Arab American Business and Professional Association of MN, Minneapolis, MN

Hasan Yahya, Professor, CEO, Director of dryahyatv channel, President of RIISP, Research Institute for Islamic Social Philosophy, Lansing, Michigan.

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Composed from various sources by www.dryahyatv.com

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Other related sources:

-         http://www.allied-media.com/Arab-American/Arab%20american%20Demographics.htm

-         http://www.allied-media.com/Arab-American/census.htm

-         http://dryahyatv.com

-         http://www.islamonline.net/english/News/2002-03/12/article27.shtml

-         http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=36430

-         http://www.us4arabs.com/content/view/1916/34/index.php

-         http://www.naaponline.org/conference07/speakers.cfm#top

-         http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/groupProfile.asp?grpid=6422

-         http://www.militantislammonitor.org/article/id/3300

-         http://www.wrmea.com/archives/october01/0110084.html

-         http://www.masnet.org/news.asp?id=5393

-         http://www.arabamericanny.org/

-         http://www.aljazeerah.info/Opinion%20editorials/2006%20Opinion%20Editorials/July/23%20o/Bush%20and%20Arab%20Puppet%20Governments%20To%20Israel%20With%20Love%20Leave%20No%20Muslim%20Child%20Behind%20By%20Mohamed%20Khodr.htm

-         http://www.arabnews.com/services/print/print.asp?artid=90290&d=22&m=12&y=2006&hl=US%20Govt%20and%20American%20Muslims%20Engage%20to%20Define%20Islamophobia

-         http://www.americanthinker.com/printpage/?url=http://www.americanthinker.com/2005/11/eurabia_defined.html

-         http://www.aaiusa.org/

-         http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=news.item&news_id=193299

-         http://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/1813/3426/4/Barazangi_MuslimWomenActivists2003.pdf

-         http://aams.blogspot.com/2009/05/muslim-voices-arts-and-ideas-june-5-14.html

-         http://www.hasanyahya.com

-         http://www.themediaoasis.com/NAAJA-US/Con2002/confspeak.htm

-         http://www.academicinfo.net/usaarab.html

-         http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?event_id=157670&fuseaction=topics.event_summary&topic_id=1427

-         http://www.watan.com/en/the-community/628-american-muslim-consumer-conference-amcc-focuses-on-marketing-to-muslims.html

-         http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/mesh/2008/02/arabs_for_obama/

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